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Wang, K, Fialko Y.  2018.  Observations and modeling of coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the 2015 M-w 7.8 Gorkha (Nepal) earthquake. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 123:761-779.   10.1002/2017jb014620   AbstractWebsite

We use space geodetic data to investigate coseismic and postseismic deformation due to the 2015 M-w 7.8 Gorkha earthquake that occurred along the central Himalayan arc. Because the earthquake area is characterized by strong variations in surface relief and material properties, we developed finite element models that explicitly account for topography and 3-D elastic structure. We computed the line-of-sight displacement histories from three tracks of the Sentinel-1A/B Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) satellites, using persistent scatter method. InSAR observations reveal an uplift of up to approximate to 70mm over approximate to 20months after the main shock, concentrated primarily at the downdip edge of the ruptured asperity. GPS observations also show uplift, as well as southward movement in the epicentral area, qualitatively similar to the coseismic deformation pattern. Kinematic inversions of GPS and InSAR data and forward models of stress-driven creep suggest that the observed postseismic transient is dominated by afterslip on a downdip extension of the seismic rupture. A poroelastic rebound may have contributed to the observed uplift and southward motion, but the predicted surface displacements are small. We also tested a wide range of viscoelastic relaxation models, including 1-D and 3-D variations in the viscosity structure. Models of a low-viscosity channel previously invoked to explain the long-term uplift and variations in topography at the plateau margins predict opposite signs of horizontal and vertical displacements compared to those observed. Our results do not preclude a possibility of deep-seated viscoelastic response beneath southern Tibet with a characteristic relaxation time greater than the observation period (2years).

Wang, K, Fialko Y.  2014.  Space geodetic observations and models of postseismic deformation due to the 2005 M7.6 Kashmir (Pakistan) earthquake. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 119:7306-7318.   10.1002/2014jb011122   AbstractWebsite

We use the L-band Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) and C-band Envisat interferometric synthetic aperture data and campaign GPS observations to study the postseismic deformation due to the 2005 magnitude 7.6 Kashmir (Pakistan) earthquake that occurred in the northwestern Himalaya. Envisat data are available from both the descending and ascending orbits and span a time period of similar to 4.5years immediately following the earthquake (2005-2010), with nearly monthly acquisitions. However, the Envisat data are highly decorrelated due to high topography and snow cover. ALOS data are available from the ascending orbit and span a time period of similar to 2.5years between 2007 and 2009, over which they remain reasonably well correlated. We derive the mean line-of-sight (LOS) postseismic velocity maps in the epicentral area of the Kashmir earthquake using persistent scatterer method for Envisat data and selective stacking for ALOS data. LOS velocities from all data sets indicate an uplift (decrease in radar range), primarily in the hanging wall of the earthquake rupture over the entire period of synthetic aperture radar observations (2005-2010). Models of poroelastic relaxation predict uplift of both the footwall and the hanging wall, while models of viscoelastic relaxation below the brittle-ductile transition predict subsidence (increase in radar range) in both the footwall and the hanging wall. Therefore, the observed pattern of surface velocities indicates that the early several years of postseismic deformation were dominated by afterslip on the fault plane, possibly with a minor contribution from poroelastic rebound. Kinematic inversions of interferometric synthetic aperture radar and GPS data confirm that the observed deformation is consistent with afterslip, primarily downdip of the seismic asperity. To place constraints on the effective viscosity of the ductile substrate in the study area, we subtract the surface deformation predicted by stress-driven afterslip model from the mean LOS velocities and compare the residuals to models of viscoelastic relaxation for a range of assumed viscosities. We show that in order to prevent surface subsidence, the effective viscosity has to be greater than 10(19)Pas. ations are negligible

Hamiel, Y, Fialko Y.  2007.  Structure and mechanical properties of faults in the North Anatolian Fault system from InSAR observations of coseismic deformation due to the 1999 Izmit (Turkey) earthquake. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 112   10.1029/2006jb004777   AbstractWebsite

We study the structure and mechanical properties of faults in the North Anatolian Fault system by observing near-fault deformation induced by the 1999 M-w 7.4 Izmit earthquake (Turkey). We use interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System observations to analyze the coseismic surface deformation in the near field of the Izmit rupture. The overall observed coseismic deformation is consistent with deformation predicted by a dislocation model assuming a uniform elastic crust. Previous InSAR studies revealed small-scale changes in the radar range across the nearby faults of the North Anatolian fault system (in particular, the Mudurnu Valley and Iznik faults) (e.g., Wright et al., 2001). We demonstrate that these anomalous range changes are consistent with an elastic response of compliant fault zones to the stress perturbation induced by the Izmit earthquake. We examine the spatial variations and mechanical properties of fault zones around the Mudurnu Valley and Iznik faults using three-dimensional finite element models. In these models, we include compliant fault zones having various geometries and elastic properties and apply stress changes deduced from a kinematic slip model of the Izmit earthquake. The best fitting models suggest that the inferred fault zones have a characteristic width of a few kilometers, depth in excess of 10 km, and reductions in the effective shear modulus of about a factor of 3 compared to the surrounding rocks. The characteristic width of the best fitting fault zone models is consistent with field observations along the North Anatolian Fault system (Ambraseys, 1970). Our results are also in agreement with InSAR observations of small-scale deformation on faults in the Eastern California Shear Zone in response to the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes (Fialko et al., 2002; Fialko, 2004). The inferred compliant fault zones likely represent intense damage and may be quite commonly associated with large crustal faults.

Fialko, Y.  2004.  Temperature fields generated by the elastodynamic propagation of shear cracks in the Earth. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 109   10.1029/2003jb002497   AbstractWebsite

Thermal perturbations associated with seismic slip on faults may significantly affect the dynamic friction and the mechanical energy release during earthquakes. This paper investigates details of the coseismic temperature increases associated with the elastodynamic propagation of shear cracks and effects of fault heating on the dynamic fault strength. Self-similar solutions are presented for the temperature evolution on a surface of a mode II shear crack and a self-healing pulse rupturing at a constant velocity. The along-crack temperature distribution is controlled by a single parameter, the ratio of the crack thickness to the width of the conductive thermal boundary layer, (w) over bar. For "thick'' cracks, or at early stages of rupture ((w) over bar > 1), the local temperature on the crack surface is directly proportional to the amount of slip. For "thin'' cracks, or at later times ((w) over bar < 1), the temperature maximum shifts toward the crack tip. For faults having slip zone thickness of the order of centimeters or less, the onset of thermally induced phenomena (e.g., frictional melting, thermal pressurization, etc.) may occur at any point along the rupture, depending on the degree of slip localization and rupture duration. In the absence of significant increases in the pore fluid pressure, localized fault slip may raise temperature by several hundred degrees, sufficient to cause melting. The onset of frictional melting may give rise to substantial increases in the effective fault strength due to an increase in the effective fault contact area, and high viscosity of silicate melts near solidus. The inferred transient increases in the dynamic friction ("viscous braking'') are consistent with results of high-speed rock sliding experiments and might explain field observations of the fault wall rip-out structures associated with pseudotachylites. Possible effects of viscous braking on the earthquake rupture dynamics include (1) delocalization of slip and increases in the effective fracture energy, (2) transition from a crack-like to a pulse-like rupture propagation, or (3) ultimate rupture arrest. Assuming that the pulse-like ruptures heal by incipient fusion, the seismologic observations can be used to place a lower bound on the dynamic fault friction. This bound is found to be of the order of several megapascals, essentially independent of the earthquake size. Further experimental and theoretical studies of melt rheology at high strain rates are needed to quantify the effects of melting on the dynamic fault strength.