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Wang, K, Xu XH, Fialko Y.  2017.  Improving Burst Alignment in TOPS Interferometry With Bivariate Enhanced Spectral Diversity. Ieee Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters. 14:2423-2427.   10.1109/lgrs.2017.2767575   AbstractWebsite

Terrain observation by progressive scans (TOPS)mode synthetic aperture radar interferometry requires high accuracy of burst alignments. Geometrical burst alignment relying on precise orbits and digital topography is not always sufficient for Sentinel-1A TOPS-mode interferometry. Enhanced spectral diversity (ESD) method was proposed to estimate a constant azimuth shift between radar images that minimizes phase discontinuities across the bursts. In some cases, however, the ESD refinement fails to align the bursts in Sentinel-1 interferograms, possibly because of ionospheric propagation effects. Here, we show that in such cases, a bivariate shift (that depends on both azimuth and range) can efficiently remove phase discontinuities across the bursts. The bivariate shift can be derived from the double-differenced radar phase in the burst overlap regions.