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Fialko, Y, Khazan Y, Simons M.  2001.  Deformation due to a pressurized horizontal circular crack in an elastic half-space, with applications to volcano geodesy. Geophysical Journal International. 146:181-190.   10.1046/j.1365-246X.2001.00452.x   AbstractWebsite

We consider deformation due to sill-like magma intrusions using a model of a horizontal circular crack in a semi-infinite elastic solid. We present exact expressions for vertical and horizontal displacements of the free surface of a half-space, and calculate surface displacements for a special case of a uniformly pressurized crack. We derive expressions for other observable geophysical parameters, such as the volume of a surface uplift/subsidence, and the corresponding volume change due to fluid injection/withdrawal at depth. We demonstrate that for essentially oblate (i.e. sill-like) source geometries the volume change at the source always equals the volume of the displaced material at the surface of a half-space. Our solutions compare favourably to a number of previously published approximate models. Surface deformation due to a 'point' crack (that is, a crack with a large depth-to-radius ratio) differs appreciably from that due to an isotropic point source ('Mogi model'). Geodetic inversions that employ only one component of deformation (either vertical or horizontal) are unlikely to resolve the overall geometry of subsurface deformation sources even in a simplest case of axisymmetric deformation. Measurements of a complete vector displacement field at the Earth's surface may help to constrain the depth and morphology of active magma reservoirs. However, our results indicate that differences in surface displacements due to various axisymmetric sources may be subtle. In particular, the sill-like and pluton-like magma chambers may give rise to differences in the ratio of maximum horizontal displacements to maximum vertical displacements (a parameter that is most indicative of the source geometry) that are less than 30 per cent. Given measurement errors in geodetic data, such differences may be hard to distinguish.

Fialko, Y, Simons M.  2000.  Deformation and seismicity in the Coso geothermal area, Inyo County, California: Observations and modeling using satellite radar interferometry. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 105:21781-21793.   10.1029/2000jb900169   AbstractWebsite

Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data collected in the Coso geothermal area, eastern California, during 1993-1999 indicate ground subsidence over a similar to 50 km(2) region that approximately coincides with the production area of the Coso geothermal plant. The maximum subsidence rate in the peak of the anomaly is similar to 3.5 cm yr(-1), and the average volumetric rate of subsidence is of the order of 10(6) m(3) yr(-1). The radar interferograms reveal a complex deformation pattern, with at least two irregular subsidence peaks in the northern part of the anomaly and a region of relative uplift on the south. We invert the InSAR displacement data for the positions, geometry, and relative strengths of the deformation sources at depth using a nonlinear least squares minimization algorithm. We use elastic solutions for a prolate uniformly pressurized spheroidal cavity in a semi-infinite body as basis functions for our inversions. Source depths inferred from our simulations range from 1 to 3 km, which corresponds to the production depths of the Coso geothermal plant. Underpressures in the geothermal reservoir inferred from the inversion are of the order of 0.1-1 MPa (except a few abnormally high underpressures that are apparently biased toward the small source dimensions). Analysis of the InSAR data covering consecutive time intervals indicates that the depths and/or horizontal extent of the deformation sources may increase with time. This increase presumably reflects increasing volumes of the subsurface reservoir affected by the geothermal exploitation. We show that clusters of microearthquakes associated with the geothermal power operation may result from perturbations in the pore fluid pressure, as well as normal and shear stresses caused by the deflation of the geothermal reservoir.

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Samsonov, SV, Feng WP, Fialko Y.  2017.  Subsidence at Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field and postseismic slip along the Indiviso fault from 2011 to 2016 RADARSAT-2 DInSAR time series analysis. Geophysical Research Letters. 44:2716-2724.   10.1002/2017gl072690   AbstractWebsite

We present RADARSAT-2 Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) observations of deformation due to fluid extraction at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (CPGF) and afterslip on the 2010 M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah (EMC) earthquake rupture during 2011-2016. Advanced multidimensional time series analysis reveals subsidence at the CPGF with the maximum rate greater than 100mm/yr accompanied by horizontal motion (radial contraction) at a rate greater than 30mm/yr. During the same time period, more than 30mm of surface creep occurred on the Indiviso fault ruptured by the EMC earthquake. We performed inversions of DInSAR data to estimate the rate of volume changes at depth due to the geothermal production at the CPGF and the distribution of afterslip on the Indiviso fault. The maximum coseismic slip due to the EMC earthquake correlates with the Coulomb stress changes on the Indiviso fault due to fluid extraction at the CPGF. Afterslip occurs on the periphery of maximum coseismic slip areas. Time series analysis indicates that afterslip still occurs 6years after the earthquake.