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Lau, N, Tymofyeyeva E, Fialko Y.  2018.  Variations in the long-term uplift rate due to the Altiplano-Puna magma body observed with Sentinel-1 interferometry. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 491:43-47.   10.1016/j.epsl.2018.03.026   AbstractWebsite

We present new Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations of surface deformation in the Altiplano-Puna region (South America) where previous studies documented a broad uplift at an average rate of similar to 10 mm/yr. We use data from the Sentinel-1 satellite mission to produce high-resolution velocity maps and time series of surface displacements between years 2014-2017. The data reveal that the uplift has slowed down substantially compared to the 1992-2010 epoch and is characterized by short-term fluctuations on time scales of months to years. The observed variations in uplift rate may indicate a non-steady supply of melt and/or volatiles from the partially molten Altiplano-Puna Magma Body (APMB) into an incipient diapir forming in the roof of the APMB. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Takeuchi, CS, Fialko Y.  2012.  Dynamic models of interseismic deformation and stress transfer from plate motion to continental transform faults. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 117   10.1029/2011jb009056   AbstractWebsite

We present numerical models of earthquake cycles on a strike-slip fault that incorporate laboratory-derived power law rheologies with Arrhenius temperature dependence, viscous dissipation, conductive heat transfer, and far-field loading due to relative plate motion. We use these models to explore the evolution of stress, strain, and thermal regime on "geologic" timescales (similar to 10(6)-10(7) years), as well as on timescales of the order of the earthquake recurrence (similar to 10(2) years). Strain localization in the viscoelastic medium results from thermomechanical coupling and power law dependence of strain rate on stress. For conditions corresponding to the San Andreas fault (SAF), the predicted width of the shear zone in the lower crust is similar to 3-5 km; this shear zone accommodates more than 50% of the far-field plate motion. Coupled thermomechanical models predict a single-layer lithosphere in case of "dry" composition of the lower crust and upper mantle, and a "jelly sandwich" lithosphere in case of "wet" composition. Deviatoric stress in the lithosphere in our models is relatively insensitive to the water content, the far-field loading rate, and the fault strength and is of the order of 10(2) MPa. Thermomechanical coupling gives rise to an inverse correlation between the fault slip rate and the ductile strength of the lithosphere. We show that our models are broadly consistent with geodetic and heat flow constrains from the SAF in Northern California. Models suggest that the regionally elevated heat flow around the SAF may be at least in part due to viscous dissipation in the ductile part of the lithosphere.

Fialko, Y.  2001.  On origin of near-axis volcanism and faulting at fast spreading mid-ocean ridges. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 190:31-39.   10.1016/s0012-821x(01)00376-4   AbstractWebsite

At fast and superfast spreading mid-ocean ridges, such as the East Pacific Rise, a plate boundary is defined by a narrow (tens to hundreds of meters wide) neovolcanic zone within which the bulk of the upper oceanic crust is created. However, detailed near-bottom observations indicate that the volcanic construction may occasionally persist several kilometers off of the ridge axis. It has been proposed that off-axis volcanism manifests tapping of a wide melting region that supplies magma to the ridge axis, or spatial migration of magmatic sources in the crust and upper mantle. We demonstrate that off-axis eruptions may be a natural consequence of variations in magma supply rate even if the ridge axis is stationary in space, and the magma delivery is perfectly focussed at the ridge axis. Theoretical modeling and field observations indicate that off-axis volcanisin may result from magma emplacement in sills that propagate toward the surface after their characteristic horizontal size exceeds their emplacement depth. Volcanic construction and faulting due to sill intrusions may contribute to the formation of abyssal hills, arguably the most abundant relief form on Earth. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.