Multiple grazing angle sea clutter modeling

Karimian, A, Yardim C, Gerstoft P, Hodgkiss WS, Barrios AE.  2012.  Multiple grazing angle sea clutter modeling. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. 60:4408-4417.

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Angle of arrival, angular spectral estimation, array signal processing, clutter, electromagnetics, equation, filters, grazing angle, parabolic wave equation, propagation, ray tracing, refractivity, rough-surface, Wave propagation


Radar clutter in a non-standard atmosphere usually is modeled based on a single grazing angle at each range. Instead, the angular distribution of incident power can be used to obtain a more accurate model of the clutter. Angular spectral estimation provides the grazing angle distribution of propagating power. However, a large gradient in the refractivity profile, e. g., an evaporation duct, distorts plane wave propagation which in turn violates assumptions of plane wave spectral estimation. Ray tracing is used in these situations, but has its own limitations (e. g., shadow zones). We suggest using curved wave spectral estimation (CWS) that yields reliable results for any refractivity profile, in contrast to plane wave spectral estimation. CWS is used to derive multiple grazing angle clutter, a model for ocean surface clutter in the microwave region that depends on all incident angles at each range and their corresponding powers.