Multiple-array passive acoustic source localization in shallow water

Tollefsen, D, Gerstoft P, Hodgkiss WS.  2017.  Multiple-array passive acoustic source localization in shallow water. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 141:1501-1513.

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aperture, bearing, focalization, geoacoustic inversion, likelihood, matched-field localization, moving source, ocean environment, source tracking, uncertainty


This paper considers concurrent matched-field processing of data from multiple, spatially-separated acoustic arrays with application to towed-source data received on two bottom-moored horizontal line arrays from the SWellEx-96 shallow water experiment. Matched-field processors are derived for multiple arrays and multiple-snapshot data using maximum-likelihood estimates for unknown complex-valued source strengths and unknown error variances. Starting from a coherent processor where phase and amplitude is known between all arrays, likelihood expressions are derived for various assumptions on relative source spectral information (amplitude and phase at different frequencies) between arrays and from snapshot to snapshot. Processing the two arrays with a coherent-array processor (with inter-array amplitude and phase known) or with an incoherent-array processor (no inter-array spectral information) both yield improvements in localization over processing the arrays individually. The best results with this data set were obtained with a processor that exploits relative amplitude information but not relative phase between arrays. The localization performance improvement is retained when the multiple-array processors are applied to short arrays that individually yield poor performance. (C) 2017 Acoustical Society of America.