Estimating relative channel impulse responses from ships of opportunity in a shallow water environment

Gemba, KL, Sarkar J, Cornuelle B, Hodgkiss WS, Kuperman WA.  2018.  Estimating relative channel impulse responses from ships of opportunity in a shallow water environment. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:1231-1244.

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acoustic arrays,acoustic correlation,acoustic noise,acoustic radiators,acoustic wave velocity,array signal processing,matched filters,ships,time series,transient response,underwater sound


The uncertainty of estimating relative channel impulse responses (CIRs) obtained using the radiated signature from a ship of opportunity is investigated. The ship observations were taken during a 1.4 km (11 min) transect in a shallow water environment during the Noise Correlation 2009 (NC09) experiment. Beamforming on the angle associated with the direct ray-path yields an estimate of the ship signature, subsequently used in a matched filter. Relative CIRs are estimated every 2.5 s independently at three vertical line arrays (VLAs). The relative arrival-time uncertainty is inversely proportional to source bandwidth and CIR signal-to-noise ratio, and reached a minimum standard deviation of 5 μs (equivalent to approximately 1 cm spatial displacement). Time-series of direct-path relative arrival-times are constructed for each VLA element across the 11 min observation interval. The overall structure of these time-series compares favorably with that predicted from an array element localization model. The short-term standard deviations calculated on the direct-path (7 μs) and bottom-reflected-path (17 μs) time-series are in agreement with the predicted arrival-time accuracies. The implications of these observed arrival-time accuracies in the context of estimating sound speed perturbations and bottom-depth are discussed.