Calibration of vertical array tilt using snapping shrimp sound

Yuan, Z, Richards EL, Song HC, Hodgkiss WS, Yan S.  2018.  Calibration of vertical array tilt using snapping shrimp sound. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:1203-1210.: Acoustical Society of America

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Snapping shrimp are the dominant biological source of high-frequency (>2 kHz) ambient noise in warm coastal waters. In a recent experiment, the highly impulsive signals produced by shrimp snaps were recorded continually by a large-aperture vertical array (56 m) that was bottom-moored in 100-m deep shallow water. Assuming the array vertical, initial localization of individual snaps based on wavefront curvature along the array indicated that all snaps came from either above or beneath the flat seabed. By constraining all snaps to originate from the seabed, several hundred snaps within a radius of 500 m from the array over a 20-s window were detected successfully and localized in the three-dimensional space of time-of-arrival, range, and array tilt. Since the estimated array tilt for each snap is a projection of the absolute array tilt onto the nominal array-snap plane, the maximal tilt in the range and tilt domain corresponds to the absolute array tilt. Both simulations and data demonstrate that snapping shrimp can be exploited as a source of opportunity for calibration of vertical array tilt.