Acoustic scattering comparison of Kirchhoff approximation to Rayleigh-Fourier method for sinusoidal surface waves at low grazing angles

Citation:
Richards, EL, Song HC, Hodgkiss WS.  2018.  Acoustic scattering comparison of Kirchhoff approximation to Rayleigh-Fourier method for sinusoidal surface waves at low grazing angles. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 144:1269-1278.

Date Published:

2018/09

Keywords:

acoustic signal processing,acoustic wave reflection,acoustic wave scattering,acoustic wave transmission,approximation theory,Fourier series,surface acoustic waves,underwater sound

Abstract:

The Fourier series method for implementing the Rayleigh hypothesis [Rayleigh-Fourier method (RFM)] is used as a reference solution to assess the Kirchhoff approximation of the Helmholtz integral [Helmholtz-Kirchhoff approximation (HKA)] for modeling broadband scatter from sinusoidal surfaces at low grazing angles. The HKA is a valuable solution because it has an eigen-ray interpretation without unbounded caustic amplitudes and discontinuous shadow zones. Plane wave studies of the HKA, however, show it becomes inaccurate at low grazing angles. This study quantifies how this limitation manifests with increasing transmission distance for time domain scattering simulations. Scattering results are compared over a complete surface wave cycle with parameters modeling sea surface-swell. The HKA agrees reasonably well with the RFM in point source calculations for limited extensions of transmission distances beyond where plane wave comparisons begin to diverge. Past these distances, HKA solutions begin to show significant over-prediction of the acoustic amplitude around late arrivals. This over-prediction is frequency dependent and eigen-ray interference offers an explanation of this behavior. Further extending the transmission range leads to a significant HKA error, and a range is found at which flat surface reflections have less error.

Notes:

n/a

DOI:

10.1121/1.5052256