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Bresnahan, PJ, Martz TR.  2018.  Gas diffusion cell geometry for a microfluidic dissolved inorganic carbon analyzer. Ieee Sensors Journal. 18:2211-2217.   10.1109/jsen.2018.2794882   AbstractWebsite

Variable gas diffusion cell geometries were tested for the extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from a microfluidic (tens to hundreds of microliters) seawater sample. With a focus on optimization of diffusion cell geometry, we compare five unique diffusion cell designs. Using 3-D printing technology to streamline the prototyping and testing process, we were able to conceive, design, fabricate, and thoroughly evaluate each design over the course of about one month. In total, 1043 DIC measurements were carried out in 109 experiments for the five working manifolds. We find that a small diameter, cylindrical diffusion cell design offers several advantages over its planar counterparts and a larger diameter cylindrical cell, most notably the ability to increase the ratio of the exchange membrane's contact surface area to solution volume (the "aspect ratio") without sacrificing channel integrity. Multiple designs approached short-term repeatability of <1%, but only the cylindrical diffusion cell design allowed for <0.2% repeatability using less than 200 mu L of sample.

Takeshita, Y, Frieder CA, Martz TR, Ballard JR, Feely RA, Kram S, Nam S, Navarro MO, Price NN, Smith JE.  2015.  Including high-frequency variability in coastal ocean acidification projections. Biogeosciences. 12:5853-5870.   10.5194/bg-12-5853-2015   AbstractWebsite

Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic ocean acidification requires knowledge of present-day and future environmental conditions. Here, we present a simple model for upwelling margins that projects anthropogenic acidification trajectories by combining high-temporal-resolution sensor data, hydrographic surveys for source water characterization, empirical relationships of the CO2 system, and the atmospheric CO2 record. This model characterizes CO2 variability on timescales ranging from hours (e. g., tidal) to months (e. g., seasonal), bridging a critical knowledge gap in ocean acidification research. The amount of anthropogenic carbon in a given water mass is dependent on the age; therefore a density-age relationship was derived for the study region and then combined with the 2013 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change CO2 emission scenarios to add density-dependent anthropogenic carbon to the sensor time series. The model was applied to time series from autonomous pH sensors deployed in the surf zone, kelp forest, submarine canyon edge, and shelf break in the upper 100m of the Southern California Bight. All habitats were within 5 km of one another, and exhibited unique, habitat-specific CO2 variability signatures and acidification trajectories, demonstrating the importance of making projections in the context of habitat-specific CO2 signatures. In general, both the mean and range of pCO(2) increase in the future, with the greatest increase in both magnitude and range occurring in the deeper habitats due to reduced buffering capacity. On the other hand, the saturation state of aragonite (Omega(Ar)) decreased in both magnitude and range. This approach can be applied to the entire California Current System, and upwelling margins in general, where sensor and complementary hydrographic data are available.

Martz, TR, Connery JG, Johnson KS.  2010.  Testing the Honeywell Durafet (R) for seawater pH applications. Limnology and Oceanography-Methods. 8:172-184.   10.4319/lom.2010.8.172   AbstractWebsite

We report on the first seawater tests at 1 atm of the Honeywell Durafet (R) pH sensor, a commercially available ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET). Performance of this sensor was evaluated in a number of different situations including a temperature-controlled calibration vessel, the MBARI test tank, shipboard underway mapping, and a surface mooring. Many of these tests included a secondary reference electrode in addition to the internal reference supplied with the stock Durafet sensor. We present a theoretical overview of sensor response using both types of reference electrode. The Durafet sensor operates with a short term precision of +/- 0.0005 pH over periods of several hours and exhibits stability of better than 0.005 pH over periods of weeks to months. Our tests indicate that the Durafet pH sensor operates at a level of performance satisfactory for many types of biogeochemical studies at low pressure.

Martz, TR, Dickson AG, DeGrandpre MD.  2006.  Tracer monitored titrations: measurement of total alkalinity. Analytical Chemistry. 78:1817-1826.   10.1021/ac0516133   AbstractWebsite

We introduce a new titration methodology, tracer monitored titration (1741), in which analyses are free of volumetric and gravimetric measurements and insensitive to pump precision and reproducibility. Spectrophotometric monitoring of titrant dilution, rather than volume increment, lays the burden of analytical performance solely on the spectrophotometer. In the method described here, the titrant is a standardized mixture of acid-base indicator and strong acid. Dilution of a pulse of titrant in a titration vessel is tracked using the total indicator concentration measured spectrophotometrically. The concentrations of reacted and unreacted indicator species, derived from Beer's law, are used to calculate the relative proportions of titrant and sample in addition to the equilibrium position (pH) of the titration mixture. Because the method does not require volumetric or gravimetric additions of titrant, simple low-precision pumps can be used. Here, we demonstrate application of TMT for analysis of total alkalinity (AT). High-precision, high-accuracy seawater AT measurements are crucial for understanding, for example, the marine CaCO3 budget and saturation state, anthropogenic CO2 penetration into the oceans, calcareous phytoplankton blooms, and coral reef dynamics. We present data from 286 titrations on three types of total alkalinity standards: Na2CO3 in 0.7 mol kg(.)soln(-1) NaCl, NaOH in 0.7 mol kg(.)soln(-1) NaCl, and a seawater Certified Reference Material (CRM). Based on Na2CO3 standards, the accuracy and precision are +/- 0.2 and +/- 0.1% (4 and 2 mu mol kg-soln(-1) for A(T) similar to 2100-2500 mu mol kg(.)soln(-1), n = 242), using low-precision solenoid pumps to introduce sample and titrant. Similar accuracy and precision were found for analyses run 42 days after the initial experiments. Excellent performance is achieved by optimizing the spectrophotometric detection system and relying upon basic chemical thermodynamics for calculating the equivalence point. Although applied to acid-base titrations in this paper, the approach should be generally applicable to other types of titrations.