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Johnston, TMS, Merrifield MA.  2003.  Internal tide scattering at seamounts, ridges, and islands. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 108   10.1029/2002jc001528   AbstractWebsite

[1] The scattering of mode-1 internal tides from idealized Gaussian topography in a nonrotating ocean with constant and realistic stratifications is examined with a primitive equation numerical model. Incident mode-1 energy fluxes of 20 and 2000 W m(-1) are used to examine the linear regime and a more realistic situation. Simulations using two-dimensional or infinite ridges compare well with ray tracing methods and illustrate how the size and shape of the topography influence wave scattering. The height affects energy transmission and reflection, while the slope and width determine the conversion of low-mode internal tides into beams or higher modes. Three-dimensional topographic scattering is considered for seamounts, finite-width ridges, and islands. Scattering from finite ridges focuses wave energy directly downstream, while scattering from seamounts produces azimuthal energy dispersion. Scattering to higher wave modes occurs in the lee of near-critical and supercritical seamounts and ridges. Nonlinear interactions transfer energy into the mode-1 M-4 internal tide. The Mellor-Yamada level-2.5 submodel parameterizes turbulent mixing. For the near-critical and supercritical ridges with realistic stratification, elevated mixing is found over the leading edge of the topography and along a tidal beam up to the first surface bounce. A transition from a beam structure near the topography to a low-mode structure farther away occurs due to an increased contribution from the mode-1 internal tide as it refracts around the topography and not due to turbulent dissipation. Internal tide scattering at topography leads to a loss of energy to mixing and to a redistribution of energy flux in space, frequency, and mode number.

Johnston, TMS, Merrifield MA, Holloway PE.  2003.  Internal tide scattering at the Line Islands Ridge. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 108   10.1029/2003jc001844   AbstractWebsite

[ 1] Scattering of the M-2 mode one internal tide from the Line Islands Ridge is examined with a primitive equation numerical model. Model runs with baroclinic and barotropic forcing are performed to distinguish scattered from locally generated internal tides. TPXO. 5 tidal model sea surface elevations provide barotropic forcing, while for the run with baroclinic forcing a mode one M-2 energy flux of 1000 W m-(1) is used to represent energy fluxes emanating from the Hawaiian Ridge. Scattering redistributes more energy flux from mode one than is locally generated in mode one. For the higher modes, scattering and generation contribute equally in terms of the overall energy flux. Spatial and modal distributions of energy density and flux show internal tide scattering dominates at Hutchinson Seamount, while higher modes are generated locally at Sculpin Ridge. Hutchinson Seamount's slopes are steeper over a greater continuous area than Sculpin Ridge. Scattered energy is found downstream of the steepest topographies, similar to simulations with idealized Gaussian ridges. At the Line Islands Ridge, 37% of the incident mode one energy flux is lost because of scattering into modes 2 - 5 ( 19%), dissipation by the model's turbulence parameterization ( 15%), and nonlinear transfer to the M-4 internal tide ( 3%). Two TOPEX ground tracks pass through the model domain roughly normal to the ridge topography and confirm the general features of the modal and spatial distribution found in the model. In the topographically rough western Pacific, internal tide scattering may be a significant source of energy for mixing away from topography.

Rainville, L, Johnston TMS, Carter GS, Merrifield MA, Pinkel R, Worcester PF, Dushaw BD.  2010.  Interference Pattern and Propagation of the M(2) Internal Tide South of the Hawaiian Ridge. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 40:311-325.   10.1175/2009jpo4256.1   AbstractWebsite

Most of the M(2) internal tide energy generated at the Hawaiian Ridge radiates away in modes 1 and 2, but direct observation of these propagating waves is complicated by the complexity of the bathymetry at the generation region and by the presence of interference patterns. Observations from satellite altimetry, a tomographic array, and the R/P FLIP taken during the Farfield Program of the Hawaiian Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) are found to be in good agreement with the output of a high-resolution primitive equation model, simulating the generation and propagation of internal tides. The model shows that different modes are generated with different amplitudes along complex topography. Multiple sources produce internal tides that sum constructively and destructively as they propagate. The major generation sites can be identified using a simplified 2D idealized knife-edge ridge model. Four line sources located on the Hawaiian Ridge reproduce the interference pattern of sea surface height and energy flux density fields from the numerical model for modes 1 and 2. Waves from multiple sources and their interference pattern have to be taken into account to correctly interpret in situ observations and satellite altimetry.

Zhao, ZX, Alford MH, Girton J, Johnston TMS, Carter G.  2011.  Internal tides around the Hawaiian Ridge estimated from multisatellite altimetry. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 116   10.1029/2011jc007045   AbstractWebsite

Satellite altimetric sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) data from Geosat Follow-on (GFO) and European Remote Sensing (ERS), as well as TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P), are merged to estimate M(2) internal tides around the Hawaiian Ridge, with higher spatial resolution than possible with single-satellite altimetry. The new estimates are compared with numerical model runs. Along-track analyses show that M(2) internal tides can be resolved from both 8 years of GFO and 15.5 years of ERS SSHA data. Comparisons at crossover points reveal that the M(2) estimates from T/P, GFO, and ERS agree well. Multisatellite altimetry improves spatial resolution due to its denser ground tracks. Thus M(2) internal tides can be plane wave fitted in 120 km x 120 km regions, compared to previous single-satellite estimates in 4 degrees lon x 3 degrees lat or 250 km x 250 km regions. In such small fitting regions the weaker and smaller-scale mode 2 M(2) internal tides can also be estimated. The higher spatial resolution leads to a clearer view of the M(2) internal tide field around the Hawaiian Ridge. Discrete generation sites and internal tidal beams are clearly distinguishable, and consistent with the numerical model runs. More importantly, multisatellite altimetry produces larger M(2) internal tidal energy fluxes, which agree better with model results, than previous single-satellite estimates. This study confirms that previous altimetric underestimates are partly due to the more widely spaced ground tracks and consequently larger fitting region. Multisatellite altimetry largely overcomes this limitation.