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Rainville, L, Johnston TMS, Carter GS, Merrifield MA, Pinkel R, Worcester PF, Dushaw BD.  2010.  Interference Pattern and Propagation of the M(2) Internal Tide South of the Hawaiian Ridge. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 40:311-325.   10.1175/2009jpo4256.1   AbstractWebsite

Most of the M(2) internal tide energy generated at the Hawaiian Ridge radiates away in modes 1 and 2, but direct observation of these propagating waves is complicated by the complexity of the bathymetry at the generation region and by the presence of interference patterns. Observations from satellite altimetry, a tomographic array, and the R/P FLIP taken during the Farfield Program of the Hawaiian Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) are found to be in good agreement with the output of a high-resolution primitive equation model, simulating the generation and propagation of internal tides. The model shows that different modes are generated with different amplitudes along complex topography. Multiple sources produce internal tides that sum constructively and destructively as they propagate. The major generation sites can be identified using a simplified 2D idealized knife-edge ridge model. Four line sources located on the Hawaiian Ridge reproduce the interference pattern of sea surface height and energy flux density fields from the numerical model for modes 1 and 2. Waves from multiple sources and their interference pattern have to be taken into account to correctly interpret in situ observations and satellite altimetry.

Johnston, TMS, Rudnick DL.  2009.  Observations of the Transition Layer. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 39:780-797.   10.1175/2008jpo3824.1   AbstractWebsite

The transition layer is the poorly understood interface between the stratified, weakly turbulent interior and the strongly turbulent surface mixed layer. The transition layer displays elevated thermohaline variance compared to the interior and maxima in current shear, vertical stratification, and potential vorticity. A database of 91 916 km or 25 426 vertical profiles of temperature and salinity from SeaSoar, a towed vehicle, is used to define the transition layer thickness. Acoustic Doppler current measurements are also used, when available. Statistics of the transition layer thickness are compared for 232 straight SeaSoar sections, which range in length from 65 to 1129 km with typical horizontal resolution of; 4 km and vertical resolution of 8 m. Transition layer thicknesses are calculated in three groups from 1) vertical displacements of the mixed layer base and of interior isopycnals into the mixed layer; 2) the depths below the mixed layer depth of peaks in shear, stratification, and potential vorticity and their widths; and 3) the depths below or above the mixed layer depth of extrema in thermohaline variance, density ratio, and isopycnal slope. From each SeaSoar section, the authors compile either a single value or a median value for each of the above measures. Each definition yields a median transition layer thickness from 8 to 24 m below the mixed layer depth. The only exception is the median depth of the maximum isopycnal slope, which is 37 m above the mixed layer base, but its mode is 15-25 m above the mixed layer base. Although the depths of the stratification, shear, and potential vorticity peaks below the mixed layer are not correlated with the mixed layer depth, the widths of the shear and potential vorticity peaks are. Transition layer thicknesses from displacements and the full width at half maximum of the shear and potential vorticity peak give transition layer thicknesses from 0.11X to 0.22X the mean depth of the mixed layer. From individual profiles, the depth of the shear peak below the stratification peak has a median value of 6 m, which shows that momentum fluxes penetrate farther than buoyancy fluxes. A typical horizontal scale of 5-10 km for the transition layer comes from the product of the isopycnal slope and a transition layer thickness suggesting the importance of submesoscale processes in forming the transition layer. Two possible parameterizations for transition layer thickness are 1) a constant of 11-24 m below the mixed layer depth as found for the shear, stratification, potential vorticity, and thermohaline variance maxima and the density ratio extrema; and 2) a linear function of mixed layer depth as found for isopycnal displacements and the widths of the shear and potential vorticity peaks.

Johnston, TMS, Merrifield MA.  2000.  Interannual geostrophic current anomalies in the near-equatorial western Pacific. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 30:3-14.   10.1175/1520-0485(2000)030<0003:igcait>;2   AbstractWebsite

A network of island ride gauges is used to estimate interannual geostrophic current anomalies (GCAs) in the western Pacific from 1975 to 1997. The focus of this study is the zonal component of the current averaged between 160 degrees E and 180 degrees and 2 degrees to 7 degrees north and south of the equator in the mean flow regions associated with the North Equatorial Countercurrent (NECC) and the South Equatorial Current (SEC), respectively. The tide gauge GCA estimates agree closely with similarly derived currents from TOPEX/Poseidon sea level anomalies. The GCAs in the western Pacific relate to a basin-scale adjustment associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation, characterized here using empirical orthogonal functions of tide gauge and supporting sea surface temperature and heat storage data, The dominant EOF mode describes the mature phase of ENSO events and correlates (0.8) with the GCA south of the equator. The second mode describes transitions to and from ENSO events and correlates (0.9) with the GCA north of the equator. The typical scenario then is for the NECC to intensify about 6 months prior to the peak of an El Nino, to remain near mean conditions during the peak stage of El Nino, and to later weaken about 6 months following the peak. In contrast, the SEC generally weakens throughout an El Nino displaying eastward anomalies. This equatorial asymmetry in the GCAs is consistent with a similar asymmetry in the wind field over the western Pacific. The phase differences between the NECC and SEC are less apparent during La Nina events. The GCA results provide further evidence that transitional phases of ENSO are more active north than south of the equator in the warm pool region.