Internal tide scattering at seamounts, ridges, and islands

Johnston, TMS, Merrifield MA.  2003.  Internal tide scattering at seamounts, ridges, and islands. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 108

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altimetry, baroclinic tides, central north pacific, deep-ocean, dissipation, generation, Internal tides, mixing, topographic scattering, turbulence, waves


[1] The scattering of mode-1 internal tides from idealized Gaussian topography in a nonrotating ocean with constant and realistic stratifications is examined with a primitive equation numerical model. Incident mode-1 energy fluxes of 20 and 2000 W m(-1) are used to examine the linear regime and a more realistic situation. Simulations using two-dimensional or infinite ridges compare well with ray tracing methods and illustrate how the size and shape of the topography influence wave scattering. The height affects energy transmission and reflection, while the slope and width determine the conversion of low-mode internal tides into beams or higher modes. Three-dimensional topographic scattering is considered for seamounts, finite-width ridges, and islands. Scattering from finite ridges focuses wave energy directly downstream, while scattering from seamounts produces azimuthal energy dispersion. Scattering to higher wave modes occurs in the lee of near-critical and supercritical seamounts and ridges. Nonlinear interactions transfer energy into the mode-1 M-4 internal tide. The Mellor-Yamada level-2.5 submodel parameterizes turbulent mixing. For the near-critical and supercritical ridges with realistic stratification, elevated mixing is found over the leading edge of the topography and along a tidal beam up to the first surface bounce. A transition from a beam structure near the topography to a low-mode structure farther away occurs due to an increased contribution from the mode-1 internal tide as it refracts around the topography and not due to turbulent dissipation. Internal tide scattering at topography leads to a loss of energy to mixing and to a redistribution of energy flux in space, frequency, and mode number.






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