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Benmarhnia, T, Kihal-Talantikite W, Ragettli MS, Deguen S.  2017.  Small-area spatiotemporal analysis of heatwave impacts on elderly mortality in Paris: A cluster analysis approach. Science of the Total Environment. 592:288-294.   10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.03.102   AbstractWebsite

Background: Heat-waves have a substantial public health burden. Understanding spatial heterogeneity at a fine spatial scale in relation to heat and related mortality is central to target interventions towards vulnerable communities. Objectives: To determine the spatial variability of heat-wave-related mortality risk among elderly in Paris, France at the census block level. We also aimed to assess area-level social and environmental determinants of high mortality risk within Paris. Methods: We used daily mortality data from 2004 to 2009 among people aged >65 at the French census block level within Paris. We used two heat wave days' definitions that were compared to non-heat wave days. A Bernoulli cluster analysis method was applied to identify high risk clusters of mortality during heat waves. We performed random effects meta-regression analyses to investigate factors associated with the magnitude of the mortality risk. Results: The spatial approach revealed a spatial aggregation of death cases during heat wave days. We found that small scale chronic PM10 exposure was associated with a 0.02 (95% CI: 0.001; 0.045) increase of the risk of dying during a heat wave episode. We also found a positive association with the percentage of foreigners and the percentage of labor force, while the proportion of elderly people living in the neighborhoodwas negatively associated. We also found that green space density had a protective effect and inversely that the density of constructed feature increased the risk of dying during a heat wave episode. Conclusion: We showed that a spatial variation in terms of heat-related vulnerability exists within Paris and that it can be explained by some contextual factors. This study can be useful for designing interventions targeting more vulnerable areas and reduce the burden of heat waves. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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Juneau, C, Benmarhnia T, Poulin A, Cote S, Potvin L.  2015.  Socioeconomic position during childhood and physical activity during adulthood: a systematic review. International Journal of Public Health. 60:799-813.   10.1007/s00038-015-0710-y   AbstractWebsite

A growing body of evidence links socioeconomic position early in life and physical activity during adulthood. This systematic review aimed to summarize this evidence.Medline and EMBASE were searched for studies that assessed socioeconomic position before age 18 years and physical activity at age a parts per thousand yen18 years. Studies were rated according to three key methodological quality criteria: (1) was childhood socioeconomic position assessed prospectively? (2) Was socioeconomic position during adulthood included in the statistical analysis? (3) Was a validated instrument used to measure of physical activity?Forty-two publications were included. Twenty-six (61.9 %) found a significant association between socioeconomic position early in life and physical activity during adulthood. Twenty-one studies met at least two methodological quality criteria. Among those, the proportion was higher: 15/21 (71.4 %). Associations were of weak to moderate strength, positive for physical activity during leisure time, and negative for transports and work.The bulk of the evidence supports the notion that there is a life course association between socioeconomic position early in life and physical activity during adulthood. Studies using more rigorous methodology supported this conclusion more consistently.

S
Schwarz, L, Benmarhnia T, Laurian L.  2015.  Social Inequalities Related to Hazardous Incinerator Emissions: An Additional Level of Environmental Injustice. Environmental Justice. 8:213-219.   10.1089/env.2015.0022   AbstractWebsite

Environmental justice (EJ) research focuses on disproportionate population exposures to multiple point and non-point pollution sources. The hazardous pollutants released by waste incinerators can contribute to uneven (or unjust) spatial and social distributions of environmental risks. The EJ literature has already revealed that the geographical distribution of incinerators generates distinct social inequalities. In the French context, these inequalities are evident when considering the proportion of unemployed people, the proportion of recent immigrants and the proportion of persons born abroad (each increases the likelihood that a town hosts an incinerator). In this article, we seek to determine whether additional social injustices occur due to disproportionate quantities of incinerator emissions. We collected annual nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from all incinerators in France for 2009-2010. We found that incinerators in French municipalities with higher unemployment and higher proportions of immigrants and persons born abroad have higher NOx emission levels, even when controlling for population size and broader regional social and environmental deprivation indices. This indicates that incinerators in France generate higher social inequalities than initially thought, both due to their spatial distribution and to the amount of emissions they release. We recommend that unequal social impacts should be considered in waste management planning, facility siting decisions, and decisions affecting emission controls for existing and possible future incinerators in France.

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Wang, Q, Benmarhnia T, Li CC, Knibbs LD, Bao JZ, Ren M, Zhang HH, Wang SH, Zhang YW, Zhao QG, Huang CR.  2019.  Seasonal analyses of the association between prenatal ambient air pollution exposure and birth weight for gestational age in Guangzhou, China. Science of the Total Environment. 649:526-534.   10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.303   AbstractWebsite

Ambient air pollution has been linked to small for gestational age (SGA); however, the relationship with large for gestational age (ILA) is unclear and very few studies have investigated seasonal effects on the association between air pollution and SGA or LGA. Using birth registry data of 506,000 singleton live births from 11 districts in Guangzhou, China between January 2015 and July 2017, we examined associations between ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, and O-3) and SGA/LGA, and further assessed the modification effect of season. Daily concentrations of air pollutants from 11 monitoring stations were used to estimate district-specific exposures for each participant based on their district of residence during pregnancy. Two-level binary logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between air pollution and SGA/LGA. Stratified analyses by season and a Cochran Q test were performed to assess the modification of season. Exposure to PM2.5, NO2, SO2, and O-3 was significantly associated with increased risk of SGA, especially for exposure during the second and trimester. For an interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM2.5(6.5 mu g/m(3)), NO2 (12.7 mu g/m(3)), SO2 (2.8 mu g/m(3)) and O-3 (20.8 mu g/m(3)) during the entire pregnancy, SGA risk increased by 2% (OR - 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00-1.04), 8% (OR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04-1.12), 2% (OR - 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03), and 14% (1.14, 1.11-1.17), respectively. A decreased risk of WA was found for PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and O-3 during the first trimester or entire pregnancy. When examined by season, significant associations between air pollutants and SGA were observed for women who conceived during summer or fall, and the patterns were consistent for all pollutants. Our study suggests that conception during different seasons might modify the association between ambient air pollution and SGA. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.