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2017
Benmarhnia, T, Huang J, Basu R, Wu J, Bruckner TA.  2017.  Decomposition analysis of black-white disparities in birth outcomes: The relative contribution of air pollution and social factors in California. Environmental Health Perspectives. 125   10.1289/ehp490   AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND: Racial/ethnic disparities in preterm birth (PTB) are well documented in the epidemiological literature, but little is known about the relative contribution of different social and environmental determinants of such disparities in birth outcome. Furthermore, increased focus has recently turned toward modifiable aspects of the environment, including physical characteristics, such as neighborhood air pollution, to reduce disparities in birth outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To apply decomposition methods to understand disparities in preterm birth (PTB) prevalence between births of non-Hispanic black individuals and births of non-Hispanic white individuals in California, according to individual demographics, neighborhood socioeconomic environment, and neighborhood air pollution. METHODS: We used all live singleton births in California spanning 2005 to 2010 and estimated PTBs and other adverse birth outcomes for infants borne by non-Hispanic black mothers and white mothers. To compare individual-level, neighborhood-level, and air pollution [Particulate. Matter, 2.5 micrometers or less (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] predictors, we conducted a nonlinear extension of the. Blinder-Oaxaca method to decompose racial/ethnic disparities in PTB. RESULTS: The predicted differences in probability of PTB between black and white infants was 0.056 (95% CI: 0.054, 0.058). All included predictors explained 37.8% of the black-white disparity. Overall, individual (17.5% for PTB) and neighborhood-level variables (16.1% for PTB) explained a greater proportion of the black-white difference in birth outcomes than air pollution (5.7% for PTB). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that, although the role of individual and neighborhood factors remains prevailing in explaining black-white differences in birth outcomes, the individual contribution of PM2.5 is comparable in magnitude to any single individual- or neighborhood-level factor.

2018
Wang, Q, Benmarhnia T, Zhang HH, Knibbs LD, Sheridan P, Li CC, Bao JZ, Ren M, Wang SH, He YL, Zhang YW, Zhao QG, Huang CR.  2018.  Identifying windows of susceptibility for maternal exposure to ambient air pollution and preterm birth. Environment International. 121:317-324.   10.1016/j.envint.2018.09.021   AbstractWebsite

Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with preterm birth (PTB), however, entire pregnancy or trimester-specific associations were generally reported, which may not sufficiently identify windows of susceptibility. Using birth registry data from Guangzhou, a megacity of southern China (population -14.5 million), including 469,975 singleton live births between January 2015 and July 2017, we assessed the association between weekly air pollution exposure and PTB in a retrospective cohort study. Daily average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, and O-3 from 11 monitoring stations were used to estimate district-specific exposures for each participant based on their district residency during pregnancy. Distributed lag models (DLMs) incorporating Cox proportional hazard models were applied to estimate the association between weekly maternal exposure to air pollutant and PTB risk (as a time-to-event outcome), after controlling for temperature, seasonally, and individual-level covariates. We also considered moderate PTB (32-36 gestational weeks) and very PTB (28-31 gestational weeks) as outcomes of interest. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidential intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for an interquartile range (IQR) increase in air pollutants during the study period. An IQR increase in PM2.5 exposure during the 20th to 28th gestational weeks (27.0 mu g/m(3)) was significantly associated with PTB risk, with the strongest effect in the 25th week (HR = 1.034, 95% CI:1.010-1.059). The significant exposure windows were the 19th-28th weeks for PM10, the 18th-31st weeks for NO2, and the 23rd-31A weeks for O-3, respectively. The strongest associations were observed in the 25th week for PM10 (IQR = 37.0 mu g/m(3); HR = 1.048, 95% CI:1.034-1.062), the 26th week for NO2 (IQR = 29.0 mu g/m(3); HR = 1.060, 95% CI:1.028-1.094), and in the 28th week for O-3 (IQR = 90.0 mu g/m(3); HR = 1.063, 95% CI:1.046-1.081). Similar patterns were observed for moderate PTB (32-36 gestational weeks) and very PTB (28-31 gestational weeks) for PM2.5, PM10, NO2 exposure, but the effects were greater for very PTB. We did not observe any association between pregnancy SO2 exposure and the risk of PTB. Our results suggest that middle to late pregnancy is the most susceptible air pollution exposure window for air pollution and PTB among women in Guangzhou, China.