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Vijayaraghavan, M, Benmarnhia T, Pierce JP, White MM, Kempster J, Shi YY, Trinidad DR, Messer K.  2018.  Income disparities in smoking cessation and the diffusion of smoke-free homes among US smokers: Results from two longitudinal surveys. Plos One. 13   10.1371/journal.pone.0201467   AbstractWebsite

Background Lower rates of successful quitting among low-income populations in the United States may be from slower dissemination of smoke-free homes, a predictor of cessation. Objectives To explore the role of smoke-free homes in cessation behavior across income levels. Participants Current smokers who were >= 18 years and who participated in the longitudinal 2002-2003 (n = 2801) or 2010-2011 (n = 2723) Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. Measurements We categorized income as multiples of the federal poverty level (FPL) (<300% FPL versus >= 300% FPL). We examined the association of smoke-free homes with 1+day quit attempts and 30+days abstinence at 1-year follow-up. We then conducted a mediation analysis to examine the extent that smoke-free homes contributed to income disparities in 30+days abstinence. Results Between the two surveys, heavy smoking (>= 1 pack/day) declined by 17%, and smoking prevalence declined by 15% among those with higher-incomes (>300%FPL). Although similar in 2002, the prevalence of smoke-free homes was 33% lower among individuals living <300% FPL than those living >= 300% FPL. Although the quit attempt rate was similar, the 30 +days abstinence rate was higher in the 2010-11 cohort than in 2002-3 cohort (20.6% versus 15.5%, p<0.008). Whereas smoking >= 1 pack/ day was associated with lower odds of 30 +days abstinence (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.7; 95% CI 0.5-0.9), having a higher income (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.6) and a smoke-free home (AOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1) were associated with greater odds of 30+day abstinence. Differential changes in smoke-free homes across income groups between the two surveys contributed to 36% (95% CI 35.7-36.3) of the observed income disparity in 30+days abstinence. Conclusions Increasing the diffusion of smoke-free homes among low-income populations may attenuate at least a third of the income disparities in smoking cessation, highlighting the need for interventions to increase adoption of smoke-free homes among low-income households.

Zunzunegui, MV, Belanger E, Benmarhnia T, Gobbo M, Otero A, Beland F, Zunzunegui F, Ribera-Casado JM.  2017.  Financial fraud and health: the case of Spain. Gaceta Sanitaria. 31:313-319.   10.1016/j.gaceta.2016.12.012   AbstractWebsite

Objective: To examine whether financial fraud is associated with poor health sleeping problems and poor quality of life. Methods: Pilot study (n = 188) conducted in 2015-2016 in Madrid and Leon (Spain) by recruiting subjects affected by two types of fraud (preferred shares and foreign currency mortgages) using venue-based sampling. Information on the monetary value of each case of fraud; the dates when subjects became aware of being swindled, lodged legal claim and received financial compensation were collected. Intergroup comparisons of the prevalence of poor physical and mental health, sleep and quality of life were carried according to type of fraud and the 2011-2012 National Health Survey. Results: In this conventional sample, victims of financial fraud had poorer health, more mental health and sleeping problems, and poorer quality of life than comparable populations of a similar age. Those who had received financial compensation for preferred share losses had better health and quality of life than those who had not been compensated and those who had taken out foreign currency mortgages. Conclusion: The results suggest that financial fraud is detrimental to health. Further research should examine the mechanisms through which financial fraud impacts health. If our results are confirmed psychological and medical care should be provided, in addition to financial compensation. (C) 2017 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espatia, S.L.U.