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Li, JX, Wang GH, Xie SP, Zhang R, Sun ZY.  2012.  A winter warm pool southwest of Hainan Island due to the orographic wind wake. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 117   10.1029/2012jc008189   Abstract

A winter warm pool off the southwest coast of Hainan Island is uncovered from high resolution satellite measurements and field observations. The warm pool is characterized by warm temperature relative to the surroundings. It forms in October, intensifies from November to next January, and decays in February. Our results show that the wind wake in the northeast winter monsoon due to the orographic blockage by mountains of Hainan Island plays an important role in generating the warm pool by reducing surface latent heat flux. The core temperature of the warm pool is correlated with the El Nino and Southern Oscillation.

de Szoeke, SP, Xie SP, Miyama T, Richards KJ, Small RJO.  2007.  What maintains the SST front north of the eastern Pacific equatorial cold tongue?* Journal of Climate. 20:2500-2514.   10.1175/jcli4173.1   Abstract
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Richter, I, Behera SK, Doi T, Taguchi B, Masumoto Y, Xie SP.  2014.  What controls equatorial Atlantic winds in boreal spring? Climate Dynamics. 43:3091-3104.   10.1007/s00382-014-2170-0   AbstractWebsite

The factors controlling equatorial Atlantic winds in boreal spring are examined using both observations and general circulation model (GCM) simulations from the coupled model intercomparison phase 5. The results show that the prevailing surface easterlies flow against the attendant pressure gradient and must therefore be maintained by other terms in the momentum budget. An important contribution comes from meridional advection of zonal momentum but the dominant contribution is the vertical transport of zonal momentum from the free troposphere to the surface. This implies that surface winds are strongly influenced by conditions in the free troposphere, chiefly pressure gradients and, to a lesser extent, meridional advection. Both factors are linked to the patterns of deep convection. Applying these findings to GCM errors indicates, that, consistent with the results of previous studies, the persistent westerly surface wind bias found in most GCMs is due mostly to precipitation errors, in particular excessive precipitation south of the equator over the ocean and deficient precipitation over equatorial South America. Free tropospheric influences also dominate the interannual variability of surface winds in boreal spring. GCM experiments with prescribed climatological sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) indicate that the free tropospheric influences are mostly associated with internal atmospheric variability. Since the surface wind anomalies in boreal spring are crucial to the development of warm SST events (Atlantic Ninos), the results imply that interannual variability in the region may rely far less on coupled air-sea feedbacks than is the case in the tropical Pacific.

Xie, SP.  1996.  Westward propagation of latitudinal asymmetry in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 53:3236-3250. Abstract
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Li, G, Xie SP, He C, Chen ZS.  2017.  Western Pacific emergent constraint lowers projected increase in Indian summer monsoon rainfall. Nature Climate Change. 7:708-+.   10.1038/nclimate3387   AbstractWebsite

The agrarian-based socioeconomic livelihood of densely populated South Asian countries is vulnerable to modest changes in Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall(1-3). How the ISM rainfall will evolve is a question of broad scientific and socioeconomic importance(3-9). In response to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) forcing, climate models commonly project an increase in ISM rainfall(4-9). This wetter ISM projection, however, does not consider large model errors in both the mean state and ocean warming pattern(9-11). Here we identify a relationship between biases in simulated present climate and future ISM projections in a multi-model ensemble: models with excessive present-day precipitation over the tropical western Pacific tend to project a larger increase in ISM rainfall under GHG forcing because of too strong a negative cloud-radiation feedback on sea surface temperature. The excessive negative feedback suppresses the local ocean surface warming, strengthening ISM rainfall projections via atmospheric circulation. We calibrate the ISM rainfall projections using this 'present-future relationship' and observed western Pacific precipitation. The correction reduces by about 50% of the projected rainfall increase over the broad ISM region. Our study identifies an improved simulation of western Pacific convection as a priority for reliable ISM projections.

Lin, XP, Xie SP, Chen XP, Xu LL.  2006.  A well-mixed warm water column in the central Bohai Sea in summer: Effects of tidal and surface wave mixing. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 111   10.1029/2006jc003504   Abstract
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Tokinaga, H, Xie S-P.  2011.  Weakening of the equatorial Atlantic cold tongue over the past six decades. Nature Geoscience. 4:222-226.   10.1038/ngeo1078   Abstract
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Tokinaga, H, Xie S-P.  2011.  Wave- and Anemometer-Based Sea Surface Wind (WASWind) for Climate Change Analysis. Journal of Climate. 24:267-285.   10.1175/2010jcli3789.1   Abstract
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