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Kubokawa, A, Xie SP.  2002.  Steady response of a ventilated thermocline to enhanced Ekman pumping. Journal of Oceanography. 58:565-575. Abstract
Xie, SP, Annamalai H, Schott FA, McCreary JP.  2002.  Structure and mechanisms of South Indian Ocean climate variability. Journal of Climate. 15:864-878. Abstract
Qu, TD, Xie SP, Mitsudera H, Ishida A.  2002.  Subduction of the north pacific mode waters in a global high-resolution GCM. Journal of Physical Oceanography. 32:746-763. Abstract
Xu, HM, Xie SP, Wang YQ.  2005.  Subseasonal variability of the southeast Pacific stratus cloud deck. Journal of Climate. 18:131-142. Abstract
Xie, SP, Xie Q, Wang DX, Liu WT.  2003.  Summer upwelling in the South China Sea and its role in regional climate variations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 108   10.1029/2003cj001867   Abstract
Merrifield, AL, Xie SP.  2016.  Summer US surface air temperature variability: controlling factors and AMIP simulation biases. Journal of Climate. 29:5123-5139.   10.1175/jcli-d-15-0705.1   AbstractWebsite

This study documents and investigates biases in simulating summer surface air temperature (SAT) variability over the continental United States in the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) experiment from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) and multivariate regression analyses are used to assess the relative importance of circulation and the land surface feedback at setting summer SAT over a 30-yr period (1979-2008). Regions of high SAT variability are closely associated with midtropospheric highs, subsidence, and radiative heating accompanying clear-sky conditions. The land surface exerts a spatially variable influence on SAT through the sensible heat flux and is a second-order effect in the high-variability centers of action (COAs) in observational estimates. The majority of the AMIP models feature high SAT variability over the central United States, displaced south and/or west of observed COAs. SAT COAs in models tend to be concomitant and strongly coupled with regions of high sensible heat flux variability, suggesting that excessive land-atmosphere interaction in these models modulates U.S. summer SAT. In the central United States, models with climatological warm biases also feature less evapotranspiration than ERA-Interim but reasonably reproduce observed SAT variability in the region. Models that overestimate SAT variability tend to reproduce ERA-Interim SAT and evapotranspiration climatology. In light of potential model biases, this analysis calls for careful evaluation of the land-atmosphere interaction hot spot region identified in the central United States. Additionally, tropical sea surface temperatures play a role in forcing the leading EOF mode for summer SAT in models. This relationship is not apparent in observations.