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Xie, S-P, Kubokawa A, Kobashi F, Mitsudera H.  2012.  New developments in mode-water research: an introduction. Journal of Oceanography. 68:1-3.   10.1007/s10872-011-0090-8   Abstract
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Okumura, YM, Deser C, Hu A, Timmermann A, Xie SP.  2009.  North Pacific Climate Response to Freshwater Forcing in the Subarctic North Atlantic: Oceanic and Atmospheric Pathways. Journal of Climate. 22:1424-1445.   10.1175/2008jcli2511.1   Abstract
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Kwon, EY, Deutsch C, Xie SP, Schmidtko S, Cho YK.  2016.  The North Pacific Oxygen uptake rates over the past half century. Journal of Climate. 29:61-76.   10.1175/jcli-d-14-00157.1   AbstractWebsite

The transport of dissolved oxygen (O-2) from the surface ocean into the interior is a critical process sustaining aerobic life in mesopelagic ecosystems, but its rates and sensitivity to climate variations are poorly understood. Using a circulation model constrained to historical variability by assimilation of observations, the study shows that the North Pacific thermocline effectively takes up O-2 primarily by expanding the area through which O-2-rich mixed layer water is detrained into the thermocline. The outcrop area during the critical winter season varies in concert with the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). When the central North Pacific Ocean is in a cold phase, the winter outcrop window for the central mode water class (CMW; a neutral density range of = 25.6-26.6) expands southward, allowing more O-2-rich surface water to enter the ocean's interior. An increase in volume flux of water to the CMW density class is partly compensated by a reduced supply to the shallower densities of subtropical mode water ( = 24.0-25.5). The thermocline has become better oxygenated since the 1980s partly because of strong O-2 uptake. Positive O-2 anomalies appear first near the outcrop and subsequently downstream in the subtropical gyre. In contrast to the O-2 variations within the ventilated thermocline, observed O-2 in intermediate water (density range of = 26.7-27.2) shows a declining trend over the past half century, a trend not explained by the open ocean water mass formation rate.

Small, RJ, Xie SP, Wang YQ.  2003.  Numerical simulation of atmospheric response to Pacific tropical instability waves. Journal of Climate. 16:3723-3741. Abstract
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Small, RJ, Xie SP, Wang YQ, Esbensen SK, Vickers D.  2005.  Numerical simulation of boundary layer structure and cross-equatorial flow in the Eastern Pacific. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 62:1812-1830. Abstract
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