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Yan, XH, Boyer T, Trenberth K, Karl TR, Xie SP, Nieves V, Tung KK, Roemmich D.  2016.  The global warming hiatus: Slowdown or redistribution? Earths Future. 4:472-482.   10.1002/2016ef000417   AbstractWebsite

Global mean surface temperatures (GMST) exhibited a smaller rate of warming during 1998-2013, compared to the warming in the latter half of the 20th Century. Although, not a "true" hiatus in the strict definition of the word, this has been termed the "global warming hiatus" by IPCC (2013). There have been other periods that have also been defined as the "hiatus" depending on the analysis. There are a number of uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding the "hiatus." This report reviews these issues and also posits insights from a collective set of diverse information that helps us understand what we do and do not know. One salient insight is that the GMST phenomenon is a surface characteristic that does not represent a slowdown in warming of the climate system but rather is an energy redistribution within the oceans. Improved understanding of the ocean distribution and redistribution of heat will help better monitor Earth's energy budget and its consequences. A review of recent scientific publications on the "hiatus" shows the difficulty and complexities in pinpointing the oceanic sink of the "missing heat" from the atmosphere and the upper layer of the oceans, which defines the "hiatus." Advances in "hiatus" research and outlooks (recommendations) are given in this report.

Yang, Y, Ma J, Xie SP.  2008.  Observations of the trade wind wakes of Kauai and Oahu. Geophysical Research Letters. 35   10.1029/2007gl031742   Abstract
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Yang, L, Liu JW, Ren ZP, Xie SP, Zhang SP, Gao SH.  2018.  Atmospheric conditions for advection-radiation fog over the western Yellow Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 123:5455-5468.   10.1029/2017jd028088   AbstractWebsite

Advection fog occurs usually when warm and moist air flows over cold sea surface. It is occasionally reported that the fog air temperature falls below sea surface temperature (called here the sea fog with sea surface heating [ssH]) due to longwave radiation cooling at fog top. Using 8-year buoy observations, this study reveals that about 33% of the time, the advection fog is with ssH in the western Yellow Sea. By synthesizing long-term observations from meteorological stations, atmospheric soundings, and offshore buoys, this study further investigates the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) structure and atmospheric circulation associated with the ssH sea fog. Composite analysis shows that a local anomalous high pressure favors widespread formation of the ssH sea fog. The subsidence in the high pressure intensifies the thermal and moist stratification between the MABL and free atmosphere through adiabatic warming. The dry air above helps cool the fog layer by enhancing the longwave radiative cooling at the fog top and the vertical mixing beneath, causing air temperature to drop below sea surface temperature. The ratio of sea fog with ssH to total sea fog decreases from spring to summer as the descending motion and MABL stratification both weaken. This study highlights the importance of longwave radiative cooling at the advection fog top and suggests a way to improve sea fog forecast in the Yellow Sea.

Yang, JL, Liu QY, Xie SP, Liu ZY, Wu LX.  2007.  Impact of the Indian Ocean SST basin mode on the Asian summer monsoon. Geophysical Research Letters. 34   10.1029/2006gl028571   Abstract
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Yang, Y, Xie SP, Hafner J.  2008.  The thermal wake of Kauai Island: Satellite observations and numerical simulations. Journal of Climate. 21:4568-4586.   10.1175/2008jcli1895.1   Abstract
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Yang, Y, Xie SP, Wu LX, Kosaka Y, Li JP.  2017.  Causes of enhanced sst variability over the equatorial atlantic and its relationship to the Atlantic Zonal Mode in CMIP5. Journal of Climate. 30:6171-6182.   10.1175/jcli-d-16-0866.1   AbstractWebsite

A spurious band of enhanced sea surface temperature (SST) variance (SBEV) is identified over the northern equatorial Atlantic in the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) Climate Model, version 2.1. The SBEV is especially pronounced in boreal spring owing to the combined effect of both anomalous atmospheric thermal forcing and oceanic vertical upwelling. The SBEV is a common bias in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5), found in 14 out of 23 models. The SBEV in CMIP5 is associated with the atmospheric thermal forcing and the oceanic vertical upwelling, similar to GFDL CM2.1. While the tropical North Atlantic variability is only weakly correlated with the Atlantic zonal mode (AZM) in observations, the SBEV in CMIP5 produces conditions that drive and intensify the AZM variability via triggering the Bjerknes feedback. This partially explains why AZM is strong in some CMIP5 models even though the equatorial cold tongue and easterly trades are biased low.

Yang, Y, Xie SP, Hafner J.  2008.  Cloud patterns lee of Hawaii Island: A synthesis of satellite observations and numerical simulation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 113   10.1029/2008jd009889   Abstract
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Yang, JC, Lin XP, Xie SP.  2017.  A Transbasin Mode of Interannual Variability of the Central American Gap Winds: Seasonality and Large-Scale Forcing. Journal of Climate. 30:8223-8235.   10.1175/jcli-d-17-0021.1   AbstractWebsite

A transbasin mode (TBM) is identified as the leading mode of interannual surface wind variability over the Intra-Americas Seas across Central America based on empirical orthogonal function analysis. The TBM is associated with variability in Central American gap winds, most closely with the Papagayo jet but with considerable signals over the Gulfs of Tehuantepec and Panama. Although El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the main large-scale forcing, the TBM features a distinct seasonality due to sea level pressure (SLP) adjustments across the Pacific and Atlantic. During July-September, ENSO causes meridional SLP gradient anomalies across Central America, intensifying anomalous geostrophic winds funneling through Papagayo to form the TBM. During wintertime, ENSO peaks but imparts little anomalous SLP gradient across Central America with a weak projection on the TBM because of the competing effects of the Pacific-North American teleconnection and tropospheric Kelvin waves. Besides ENSO, tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies make a weak contribution to the TBM in boreal summer by strengthening the cross-basin gradient. ENSO and the Atlantic forcing constitute a cross-basin seesaw pattern in SLP, manifested as an anomalous Walker circulation across the tropical Americas. The TBM appears to be part of the low-level branch of the anomalous Walker circulation, which modulates Central American wind jets by orographic effect. This study highlights the seasonality of gap wind variability, and calls for further research into its influence on regional climate.

Yang, L, Du Y, Xie SP, Wang DX.  2012.  An interdecadal change of tropical cyclone activity in the South China Sea in the early 1990s. Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology. 30:953-959.   10.1007/s00343-012-1258-9   Abstract

Tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in the South China Sea (SCS) during 1979-2008 underwent a decadal variation around 1993. A total of 55 TCs formed in the SCS from May to September during 1994-2008, about twice that during 1979-1993 (27). During the TC peak season (July-September, JAS), there were 43 TCs from 1994-2008, but only 17 during 1979-1993. For July in particular, 13 TCs formed from 1994-2008, but there were none during 1979-1993. The change in TC number is associated with changes of key environmental conditions in atmosphere and ocean. Compared to 1979-1993, the subtropical high was significantly weaker and was displaced more eastward during 1994-2008. In the former period, a stronger subtropical high induced downward flow, inhibiting TC formation. In the latter period, vertical wind shear and outgoing longwave radiation all weakened. Mid-level (850-500 hPa) humidity, and relative vorticity were higher. Sea surface temperature and upper layer heat content were also higher in the area. All these factors favor TC genesis during the latter period. The decadal change of TC genesis led to more landfalling TCs in Southern China during the period 1994-2008, which contributed to an abrupt increase in regional rainfall.

Yang, Y, Xie SP, Wu LX, Kosaka Y, Lau NC, Vecchi GA.  2015.  Seasonality and predictability of the Indian Ocean Dipole Mode: ENSO forcing and internal variability. Journal of Climate. 28:8021-8036.   10.1175/jcli-d-15-0078.1   AbstractWebsite

This study evaluates the relative contributions to the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) mode of interannual variability from the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) forcing and ocean-atmosphere feedbacks internal to the Indian Ocean. The ENSO forcing and internal variability is extracted by conducting a 10-member coupled simulation for 1950-2012 where sea surface temperature (SST) is restored to the observed anomalies over the tropical Pacific but interactive with the atmosphere over the rest of the World Ocean. In these experiments, the ensemble mean is due to ENSO forcing and the intermember difference arises from internal variability of the climate system independent of ENSO. These elements contribute one-third and two-thirds of the total IOD variance, respectively. Both types of IOD variability develop into an east-west dipole pattern because of Bjerknes feedback and peak in September-November. The ENSO forced and internal IOD modes differ in several important ways. The forced IOD mode develops in August with a broad meridional pattern and eventually evolves into the Indian Ocean basin mode, while the internal IOD mode grows earlier in June, is more confined to the equator, and decays rapidly after October. The internal IOD mode is more skewed than the ENSO forced response. The destructive interference of ENSO forcing and internal variability can explain early terminating IOD events, referred to as IOD-like perturbations that fail to grow during boreal summer. The results have implications for predictability. Internal variability, as represented by preseason sea surface height anomalies off Sumatra, contributes to predictability considerably. Including this indicator of internal variability, together with ENSO, improves the predictability of IOD.

Yu, W, Han W, Maloney ED, Gochis D, Xie S-P.  2011.  Observations of eastward propagation of atmospheric intraseasonal oscillations from the Pacific to the Atlantic. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 116   10.1029/2010jd014336   Abstract
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Yu, ZJ, Maximenko N, Xie SP, Nonaka M.  2003.  On the termination of the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent. Geophysical Research Letters. 30   10.1029/2002gl016710   Abstract
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