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McKenna, MF, Katz SL, Wiggins SM, Ross D, Hildebrand JA.  2012.  A quieting ocean: Unintended consequence of a fluctuating economy. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 132:EL169-EL175.   10.1121/1.4740225   AbstractWebsite

Simultaneous long-term monitoring of underwater sound and ship traffic provided an opportunity to study how low-frequency noise correlated with ocean-based commercial shipping trends. Between 2007 and 2010 changes in regional shipping off southern California occurred as a consequence of economic and regulatory events. Underwater average noise levels measured before and during these events showed a net reduction of 12 dB. Statistical models revealed that a reduction of 1 ship transit per day resulted in 1 dB decrease in average noise. This synthesis of maritime traffic statistics with ocean noise monitoring provides an important step in understanding the magnitude and potential effects of chronic noise in marine habitats. (C) 2012 Acoustical Society of America