Publications

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Journal Article
Sirovic, A, Wiggins SM, Oleson EM.  2013.  Ocean noise in the tropical and subtropical Pacific Ocean. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 134:2681-2689.   10.1121/1.4820884   AbstractWebsite

Ocean ambient noise is well studied in the North Pacific and North Atlantic but is poorly described for most of the worlds' oceans. Calibrated passive acoustic recordings were collected during 2009-2010 at seven locations in the central and western tropical and subtropical Pacific. Monthly and hourly mean power spectra (15-1000 Hz) were calculated in addition to their skewness, kurtosis, and percentile distributions. Overall, ambient noise at these seven sites was 10-20 dB lower than reported recently for most other locations in the North Pacific. At frequencies <100Hz, spectrum levels were equivalent to those predicted for remote or light shipping. Noise levels in the 40Hz band were compared to the presence of nearby and distant ships as reported to the World Meteorological Organization Voluntary Observing Ship Scheme (VOS) project. There was a positive, but nonsignificant correlation between distant shipping and low frequency noise (at 40 Hz). There was a seasonal variation in ambient noise at frequencies >200Hz with higher levels recorded in the winter than in the summer. Several species of baleen whales, humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae), blue (Balaenoptera musculus), and fin (B. physalus) whales, also contributed seasonally to ambient noise in characteristic frequency bands. (C) 2013 Acoustical Society of America.

Baumann-Pickering, S, Trickey JS, Wiggins SM, Oleson EM.  2016.  Odontocete occurrence in relation to changes in oceanography at a remote equatorial Pacific seamount. Marine Mammal Science.   10.1111/mms.12299   Abstract

Seamounts are considered hot spots of biodiversity and can aggregate pelagic predators and their prey. Passive acoustic monitoring was conducted over 3 mo in 2012 to document the occurrence of odontocetes near a seamount chain in the central equatorial Pacific in relation to oceanographic changes over time. Beaked whale echolocation signals were most frequently encountered. The main beaked whale signal was an unknown type, BW38, which resembled signals produced by Blainville's beaked whales. It had high occurrence during high sea surface temperature and low sea surface salinity. Cuvier's beaked whales were the second most detected. They had an opposite pattern and were encountered more often when sea surface temperature was low and net primary productivity was high. Risso's dolphins and short-finned pilot whales had high acoustic densities, and echolocated predominantly at night. Risso's dolphins occurred more often during low sea surface height deviation. False killer whales were less frequently detected and mostly occurred during the day. Sperm whale detections were fewer than expected and associated with high chlorophyll a. Short duration Kogiidae encounters occurred on average every third day. These types of long-term site studies are an informative tool to comparatively assess species composition, relative abundance, and relationship to oceanographic changes.

Gassmann, M, Henderson EE, Wiggins SM, Roch MA, Hildebrand JA.  2013.  Offshore killer whale tracking using multiple hydrophone arrays. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 134:3513-3521.   10.1121/1.4824162   AbstractWebsite

To study delphinid near surface movements and behavior, two L-shaped hydrophone arrays and one vertical hydrophone line array were deployed at shallow depths (<125 m) from the floating instrument platform R/P FLIP, moored northwest of San Clemente Island in the Southern California Bight. A three-dimensional propagation-model based passive acoustic tracking method was developed and used to track a group of five offshore killer whales (Orcinus orca) using their emitted clicks. In addition, killer whale pulsed calls and high-frequency modulated (HFM) signals were localized using other standard techniques. Based on these tracks sound source levels for the killer whales were estimated. The peak to peak source levels for echolocation clicks vary between 170-205 dB re 1 mu Pa @ 1 m, for HFM calls between 185-193 dB re 1 mu Pa @ 1 m, and for pulsed calls between 146-158 dB re 1 mu Pa @ 1 m. (C) 2013 Acoustical Society of America.