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Wiggins, SM, Hildebrand JA, Gieskes JM.  2002.  Geothermal state and fluid flow within ODP Hole 843B: results from wireline logging. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 195:239-248.   10.1016/s0012-821x(01)00590-8   AbstractWebsite

Borehole fluid temperatures were measured with a wireline re-entry system in Ocean Drilling Program Hole 843B, the site of the Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment. These temperature data, recorded more than 7 years after drilling, are compared to temperature data logged during Leg 136, approximately I day after drilling had ceased. Qualitative interpretations of the temperature data suggest that fluid flowed slowly downward in the borehole immediately following drilling, and flowed slowly upward 7 years after drilling. Quantitative analysis suggests that the upward fluid flow rate in the borehole is approximately 1 m/h. Slow fluid flow interpreted from temperature data only, however, requires estimates of other unmeasured physical properties. If fluid flows upward in Hole 843B, it may have led to undesirable noise for the borehole seismometer emplaced in this hole as part of the Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment, Estimates of conductive heat flow from ODP Hole 843B are 51 mW/m(2) for the sediment and the basalt. These values are lower than the most recent Hawaiian Arch seafloor heat flow studies. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Stafford, KM, Moore SE, Spillane M, Wiggins S.  2007.  Gray whale calls recorded near barrow, Alaska, throughout the winter of 2003-04. Arctic. 60:167-172. AbstractWebsite

Since the mid-1990s, gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) have been reported with increasing frequency near Barrow, Alaska, during summer and autumn months. In collaboration with a broad-scale oceanographic study, three autonomous acoustic recorders were moored northeast of Barrow in October 2003 to provide capability for year-round detection of calls. Two recorders were recovered in September 2004, one from the continental slope (water depth = 316 m) and one from near the base of the slope (water depth = 1258 m). The shallow instrument recorded for roughly 3 months (87 days), and the deeper instrument for roughly 7.3 months (222 days). Gray whale calls were recorded on both instruments throughout their periods of operation. The calling rate at the shallower instrument was higher than at the deeper recorder, but surprisingly, the deeper instrument detected calls throughout the 2003-04 winter, though the calling rate diminished as winter progressed. Low-frequency N1/S1 pulses, the most common of the calls produced by gray whales, were recorded from deployment through December 2003 on the shallower of the two instruments and from deployment through May 2004 on the deeper instrument. Because this is the first-ever winter-long acoustic study, we cannot be certain that gray whales have not overwintered in the Beaufort Sea in the past. However, a combination of increasing population size and habitat alteration associated with sea ice reduction and warming in the Alaskan Arctic may be responsible for the extra-seasonal gray whale occurrence near Barrow.

Wiggins, SM, Hall JM, Thayre BJ, Hildebrand JA.  2016.  Gulf of Mexico low-frequency ocean soundscape impacted by airguns. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 140:176-183.   10.1121/1.4955300   AbstractWebsite

The ocean soundscape of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) has not been well-studied, although it is an important habitat for marine mammals, including sperm and beaked whales, many dolphin species, and a potentially endangered baleen whale species. The GOM is also home to high levels of hydrocarbon exploration and extraction, heavily used commercial shipping ports, and significant fishery industry activity, all of which are known contributors to oceanic noise. From 2010-2013, the soundscape of three deep and two shallow water sites in the GOM were monitored over 10 - 1000 Hz. Average sound pressure spectrum levels were high, >90 dB re 1 mu Pa-2/Hz at <40 Hz for the deep water sites and were associated with noise from seismic exploration airguns. More moderate sound pressure levels, <55 dB re 1 mu Pa-2/Hz at >700 Hz, were present at a shallow water site in the northeastern Gulf, removed from the zone of industrial development and bathymetrically shielded from deep water anthropogenic sound sources. During passage of a high wind event (Hurricane Isaac, 2012), sound pressure levels above 200 Hz increased with wind speed, but at low frequencies (<100 Hz) sound pressure levels decreased owing to absence of noise from airguns. (C) 2016 Author(s).