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Henderson, EE, Smith MH, Gassmann M, Wiggins SM, Douglas AB, Hildebrand JA.  2014.  Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 136:2003-2014.   10.1121/1.4895681   AbstractWebsite

Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8 kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122 dB re: 1 mu Pa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well. (C) 2014 Acoustical Society of America.

Hildebrand, JA, Baumann-Pickering S, Frasier KE, Trickey JS, Merkens KP, Wiggins SM, McDonald MA, Garrison LP, Harris D, Marques TA, Thomas L.  2015.  Passive acoustic monitoring of beaked whale densities in the Gulf of Mexico. Scientific Reports. 5:16343.: Macmillan Publishers Limited   10.1038/srep16343   Abstract

Beaked whales are deep diving elusive animals, difficult to census with conventional visual surveys. Methods are presented for the density estimation of beaked whales, using passive acoustic monitoring data collected at sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from the period during and following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010–2013). Beaked whale species detected include: Gervais’ (Mesoplodon europaeus), Cuvier’s (Ziphius cavirostris), Blainville’s (Mesoplodon densirostris) and an unknown species of Mesoplodon sp. (designated as Beaked Whale Gulf — BWG). For Gervais’ and Cuvier’s beaked whales, we estimated weekly animal density using two methods, one based on the number of echolocation clicks, and another based on the detection of animal groups during 5 min time-bins. Density estimates derived from these two methods were in good general agreement. At two sites in the western GOM, Gervais’ beaked whales were present throughout the monitoring period, but Cuvier’s beaked whales were present only seasonally, with periods of low density during the summer and higher density in the winter. At an eastern GOM site, both Gervais’ and Cuvier’s beaked whales had a high density throughout the monitoring period.

Hildebrand, JA, Wiggins SM, Driver JL, Waters MR.  2007.  Rapid seismic reflection imaging at the Clovis period Gault site in central Texas. Archaeological Prospection. 14:245-260.   10.1002/arp.309   AbstractWebsite

Using a modified seismic reflection imaging system with rapid translation of receivers, stratigraphic profiles were collected at the Gault site in central Texas. For rapid data collection, spikeless geophone receivers were placed in sand-filled bags at tight spacing, and these receivers were rapidly pulled along the ground surface between shots. Shots were produced by a small hammer strike to a vertical pipe at 20-cm intervals. High quality ultrashallow seismic reflection profiles were collected at a rate of 25 m h(-1), significantly faster than what is possible with conventional seismic reflection imaging using individually planted geophones. Ground-penetrating radar was attempted, but abandoned owing to the poor penetration of the radar signals in the clay soils present at the Gault site. Electromagnetic induction grids were collected surrounding each seismic reflection profile, and provided information on near-surface ground water. Seismic reflection images of Gault site stratigraphy provided greater depth penetration than accessible from backhoe trenching and coring, and helped to better outline the site geological context. Seismic images reveal coherent reflections at shallow depths (0-2.5 m), and extensive scattering at deeper levels (2.5-8 m), underlain by reflection-free zones. These data are interpreted as clay and gravel layers overlaying palaeostream channels carved into the limestone bedrock. Where comparative data were available, the geophysical findings were corroborated by observations of site stratigraphy in archaeological excavation units, backhoe trenches and cores. Seismic reflection studies at the Gault site revealed a palaeochannel filled with pre-Clovis age sediments. Pre-Clovis age sediments are not known to occur at other locations within the Gault site. They provide a unique opportunity to test for cultural remains of great antiquity. Copyright (C) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Hildebrand, JA, Frasier KE, Baumann-Pickering S, Wiggins SM, Merkens KP, Garrison LP, Soklevilla MS, McDonald MA.  2019.  Assessing seasonality and density from passive acoustic monitoring of signals presumed to be from pygmy and dwarf sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico. Frontiers in Marine Science. 6   10.3389/fmars.2019.00066   AbstractWebsite

Pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps) and dwarf sperm whales (Kogia sima) are deep diving cetaceans that commonly strand along the coast of the southeast US, but that are difficult to study visually at sea because of their elusive behavior. Conventional visual surveys are thought to significantly underestimate the presence of Kogia and they have proven difficult to approach for tracking and tagging. An approach is presented for density estimation of signals presumed to be from Kogia spp. based on passive acoustic monitoring data collected at sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from the period following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010-2013). Both species of Kogia are known to inhabit the GOM, although it is not possible to acoustically separate the two based on available knowledge of their echolocation clicks. An increasing interannual density trend is suggested for animals near the primary zone of impact of the oil spill, and to the southeast of the spill. Densities were estimated based on both counting individual echolocation clicks and counting the presence of groups of animals during one-min time windows. Densities derived from acoustic monitoring at three sites are all substantially higher (4-16 animals/1000 km(2)) than those that have been derived for Kogia from line transect visual surveys in the same region (0.5 animals/1000 km(2)). The most likely explanation for the observed discrepancy is that the visual surveys are underestimating Kogia spp. density, due to the assumption of perfect detectability on the survey trackline. We present an alternative approach for density estimation, one that derives echolocation and behavioral parameters based on comparison of modeled and observed sound received levels at sites of varying depth.

Hildebrand, JA, Wiggins SM, Henkart PC, Conyers LB.  2002.  Comparison of seismic reflection and ground-penetrating radar imaging at the controlled archaeological test site, Champaign, Illinois. Archaeological Prospection. 9:9-21.   10.1002/arp.177   Abstract

Shallow seismic reflection and ground-penetrating radar images were collected at a replicated burial mound in the Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) in Champaign, Illinois. The CATS mound contains a pig burial within a wood-lined crypt at a depth of 1.6–2.4 m. Seismic reflection data were collected from two different energy sources: a small (0.5 kg) hammer for an impulsive source, and a vibrator for a frequency swept source. Seismic data were collected at densely spaced points (5 cm) along a line of 48 geophone receivers. These data were stacked in a common mid-point gather, band-pass filtered, and processed with frequency–wavenumber migration. The seismic image produced by the hammer source was dominated by bodywaves at 120 Hz, whereas the vibrator source image was dominated by surface waves at 70 Hz. Both seismic sources revealed clear reflections from the burial crypt, and placed the top of the crypt at the correct depth with a seismic velocity of 120 m s 1. The bottom of the crypt was poorly defined by the seismic data owing to multiple reflections within the crypt. The vibrator source also revealed a highfrequency (360 Hz) reflector at 2.7 m depth within the mound, perhaps due to a resonant cavity within the pig’s body. Single channel ground-penetrating radar data were processed with the same approach, including band-pass filtering and migration. The radar data reveal clear reflections from the burial crypt. Extremely fast radar velocities (260 mm ns 1) are required in the upper portion of the burial mound to place the top of the crypt at its correct depth. The bottom of the crypt was well defined by ground-penetrating radar, and was located accurately with respect to the top of the crypt with a moderate radar velocity (170 mm ns 1). The application of both seismic reflection and ground-penetrating radar to the same site may be beneficial for improved understanding of their abilities for shallow subsurface imaging. Copyright  2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.