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Cranford, TW, McKenna MF, Soldevilla MS, Wiggins SM, Goldbogen JA, Shadwick RE, Krysl P, St Leger JA, Hildebrand JA.  2008.  Anatomic geometry of sound transmission and reception in Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris). Anatomical Record-Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology. 291:353-378.   10.1002/ar.20652   AbstractWebsite

This study uses remote imaging technology to quantify, compare, and contrast the cephalic anatomy between a neonate female and a young adult male Cuvier's beaked whale. Primary results reveal details of anatomic geometry with implications for acoustic function and diving. Specifically, we describe the juxtaposition of the large pterygoid sinuses, a fibrous venous plexus, and a lipid-rich pathway that connects the acoustic environment to the bony ear complex. We surmise that the large pterygoid air sinuses are essential adaptations for maintaining acoustic isolation and auditory acuity of the ears at depth. In the adult male, an acoustic waveguide lined with pachyosteosclerotic bones is apparently part of a novel transmission pathway for outgoing biosonar signals. Substitution of dense tissue boundaries where we normally find air sacs in delphinoids appears to be a recurring theme in deep-diving beaked whales and sperm whales. The anatomic configuration of the adult male Ziphius forehead resembles an upside-down sperm whale nose and may be its functional equivalent, but the homologous relationships between forehead structures are equivocal. Anat Rec, 291:353-378, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Hildebrand, JA, Frasier KE, Baumann-Pickering S, Wiggins SM, Merkens KP, Garrison LP, Soklevilla MS, McDonald MA.  2019.  Assessing seasonality and density from passive acoustic monitoring of signals presumed to be from pygmy and dwarf sperm whales in the Gulf of Mexico. Frontiers in Marine Science. 6   10.3389/fmars.2019.00066   AbstractWebsite

Pygmy sperm whales (Kogia breviceps) and dwarf sperm whales (Kogia sima) are deep diving cetaceans that commonly strand along the coast of the southeast US, but that are difficult to study visually at sea because of their elusive behavior. Conventional visual surveys are thought to significantly underestimate the presence of Kogia and they have proven difficult to approach for tracking and tagging. An approach is presented for density estimation of signals presumed to be from Kogia spp. based on passive acoustic monitoring data collected at sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from the period following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010-2013). Both species of Kogia are known to inhabit the GOM, although it is not possible to acoustically separate the two based on available knowledge of their echolocation clicks. An increasing interannual density trend is suggested for animals near the primary zone of impact of the oil spill, and to the southeast of the spill. Densities were estimated based on both counting individual echolocation clicks and counting the presence of groups of animals during one-min time windows. Densities derived from acoustic monitoring at three sites are all substantially higher (4-16 animals/1000 km(2)) than those that have been derived for Kogia from line transect visual surveys in the same region (0.5 animals/1000 km(2)). The most likely explanation for the observed discrepancy is that the visual surveys are underestimating Kogia spp. density, due to the assumption of perfect detectability on the survey trackline. We present an alternative approach for density estimation, one that derives echolocation and behavioral parameters based on comparison of modeled and observed sound received levels at sites of varying depth.

Frasier, KE, Roch MA, Soldevilla MS, Wiggins SM, Garrison LP, Hildebrand JA.  2017.  Automated classification of dolphin echolocation click types from the Gulf of Mexico. Plos Computational Biology. 13   10.1371/journal.pcbi.1005823   AbstractWebsite

Delphinids produce large numbers of short duration, broadband echolocation clicks which may be useful for species classification in passive acoustic monitoring efforts. A challenge in echolocation click classification is to overcome the many sources of variability to recognize underlying patterns across many detections. An automated unsupervised network-based classification method was developed to simulate the approach a human analyst uses when categorizing click types: Clusters of similar clicks were identified by incorporating multiple click characteristics (spectral shape and inter-click interval distributions) to distinguish within-type from between-type variation, and identify distinct, persistent click types. Once click types were established, an algorithm for classifying novel detections using existing clusters was tested. The automated classification method was applied to a dataset of 52 million clicks detected across five monitoring sites over two years in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Seven distinct click types were identified, one of which is known to be associated with an acoustically identifiable delphinid (Risso's dolphin) and six of which are not yet identified. All types occurred at multiple monitoring locations, but the relative occurrence of types varied, particularly between continental shelf and slope locations. Automatically- identified click types from autonomous seafloor recorders without verifiable species identification were compared with clicks detected on sea-surface towed hydrophone arrays in the presence of visually identified delphinid species. These comparisons suggest potential species identities for the animals producing some echolocation click types. The network-based classification method presented here is effective for rapid, unsupervised delphinid click classification across large datasets in which the click types may not be known a priori.

Gassmann, M, Wiggins SM, Hildebrand JA.  2017.  Deep-water measurements of container ship radiated noise signatures and directionality. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 142:1563-1574.   10.1121/1.5001063   AbstractWebsite

Underwater radiated noise from merchant ships was measured opportunistically from multiple spatial aspects to estimate signature source levels and directionality. Transiting ships were tracked via the Automatic Identification System in a shipping lane while acoustic pressure was measured at the ships' keel and beam aspects. Port and starboard beam aspects were 15 degrees, 30 degrees, and 45 degrees in compliance with ship noise measurements standards [ANSI/ASA S12.64 (2009) and ISO 17208-1 (2016)]. Additional recordings were made at a 10 degrees starboard aspect. Source levels were derived with a spherical propagation (surface-affected) or a modified Lloyd's mirror model to account for interference from surface reflections (surface-corrected). Ship source depths were estimated from spectral differences between measurements at different beam aspects. Results were exemplified with a 4870 and a 10 036 twenty-foot equivalent unit container ship at 40%-56% and 87% of service speeds, respectively. For the larger ship, opportunistic ANSI/ISO broadband levels were 195 (surface-affected) and 209 (surface-corrected) dB re 1 mu Pa-2 1 m. Directionality at a propeller blade rate of 8 Hz exhibited asymmetries in stern-bow (< 6 dB) and port-starboard (< 9 dB) direction. Previously reported broadband levels at 10 degrees aspect from McKenna, Ross, Wiggins, and Hildebrand [(2012b). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 92-103] may be similar to 12 dB lower than respective surface-affected ANSI/ISO standard derived levels. (C) 2017 Acoustical Society of America.

Henderson, EE, Smith MH, Gassmann M, Wiggins SM, Douglas AB, Hildebrand JA.  2014.  Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 136:2003-2014.   10.1121/1.4895681   AbstractWebsite

Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8 kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122 dB re: 1 mu Pa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well. (C) 2014 Acoustical Society of America.

Wiggins, SM, Hildebrand JA, Gieskes JM.  2002.  Geothermal state and fluid flow within ODP Hole 843B: results from wireline logging. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 195:239-248.   10.1016/s0012-821x(01)00590-8   AbstractWebsite

Borehole fluid temperatures were measured with a wireline re-entry system in Ocean Drilling Program Hole 843B, the site of the Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment. These temperature data, recorded more than 7 years after drilling, are compared to temperature data logged during Leg 136, approximately I day after drilling had ceased. Qualitative interpretations of the temperature data suggest that fluid flowed slowly downward in the borehole immediately following drilling, and flowed slowly upward 7 years after drilling. Quantitative analysis suggests that the upward fluid flow rate in the borehole is approximately 1 m/h. Slow fluid flow interpreted from temperature data only, however, requires estimates of other unmeasured physical properties. If fluid flows upward in Hole 843B, it may have led to undesirable noise for the borehole seismometer emplaced in this hole as part of the Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment, Estimates of conductive heat flow from ODP Hole 843B are 51 mW/m(2) for the sediment and the basalt. These values are lower than the most recent Hawaiian Arch seafloor heat flow studies. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Simonis, AE, Baumann-Pickering S, Oleson E, Melcon ML, Gassmann M, Wiggins SM, Hildebrand JA.  2012.  High-frequency modulated signals of killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the North Pacific. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 131:EL295-EL301.   10.1121/1.3690963   AbstractWebsite

Killer whales in the North Pacific, similar to Atlantic populations, produce high-frequency modulated signals, based on acoustic recordings from ship-based hydrophone arrays and autonomous recorders at multiple locations. The median peak frequency of these signals ranged from 19.6-36.1 kHz and median duration ranged from 50-163 ms. Source levels were 185-193 dB peak-to-peak re: 1 mu Pa at 1 m. These uniform, repetitive, down-swept signals are similar to bat echolocation signals and possibly could have echolocation functionality. A large geographic range of occurrence suggests that different killer whale ecotypes may utilize these signals. (C) 2012 Acoustical Society of America

Guazzo, RA, Helble TA, D’Spain GL, Weller DW, Wiggins SM, Hildebrand JA.  2017.  Migratory behavior of eastern North Pacific gray whales tracked using a hydrophone array. PLOS ONE. 12:e0185585.: Public Library of Science   10.1371/journal.pone.0185585   Abstract

Eastern North Pacific gray whales make one of the longest annual migrations of any mammal, traveling from their summer feeding areas in the Bering and Chukchi Seas to their wintering areas in the lagoons of Baja California, Mexico. Although a significant body of knowledge on gray whale biology and behavior exists, little is known about their vocal behavior while migrating. In this study, we used a sparse hydrophone array deployed offshore of central California to investigate how gray whales behave and use sound while migrating. We detected, localized, and tracked whales for one full migration season, a first for gray whales. We verified and localized 10,644 gray whale M3 calls and grouped them into 280 tracks. Results confirm that gray whales are acoustically active while migrating and their swimming and acoustic behavior changes on daily and seasonal time scales. The seasonal timing of the calls verifies the gray whale migration timing determined using other methods such as counts conducted by visual observers. The total number of calls and the percentage of calls that were part of a track changed significantly over both seasonal and daily time scales. An average calling rate of 5.7 calls/whale/day was observed, which is significantly greater than previously reported migration calling rates. We measured a mean speed of 1.6 m/s and quantified heading, direction, and water depth where tracks were located. Mean speed and water depth remained constant between night and day, but these quantities had greater variation at night. Gray whales produce M3 calls with a root mean square source level of 156.9 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m. Quantities describing call characteristics were variable and dependent on site-specific propagation characteristics.

Gassmann, M, Henderson EE, Wiggins SM, Roch MA, Hildebrand JA.  2013.  Offshore killer whale tracking using multiple hydrophone arrays. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 134:3513-3521.   10.1121/1.4824162   AbstractWebsite

To study delphinid near surface movements and behavior, two L-shaped hydrophone arrays and one vertical hydrophone line array were deployed at shallow depths (<125 m) from the floating instrument platform R/P FLIP, moored northwest of San Clemente Island in the Southern California Bight. A three-dimensional propagation-model based passive acoustic tracking method was developed and used to track a group of five offshore killer whales (Orcinus orca) using their emitted clicks. In addition, killer whale pulsed calls and high-frequency modulated (HFM) signals were localized using other standard techniques. Based on these tracks sound source levels for the killer whales were estimated. The peak to peak source levels for echolocation clicks vary between 170-205 dB re 1 mu Pa @ 1 m, for HFM calls between 185-193 dB re 1 mu Pa @ 1 m, and for pulsed calls between 146-158 dB re 1 mu Pa @ 1 m. (C) 2013 Acoustical Society of America.

Hildebrand, JA, Baumann-Pickering S, Frasier KE, Trickey JS, Merkens KP, Wiggins SM, McDonald MA, Garrison LP, Harris D, Marques TA, Thomas L.  2015.  Passive acoustic monitoring of beaked whale densities in the Gulf of Mexico. Scientific Reports. 5:16343.: Macmillan Publishers Limited   10.1038/srep16343   Abstract

Beaked whales are deep diving elusive animals, difficult to census with conventional visual surveys. Methods are presented for the density estimation of beaked whales, using passive acoustic monitoring data collected at sites in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) from the period during and following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (2010–2013). Beaked whale species detected include: Gervais’ (Mesoplodon europaeus), Cuvier’s (Ziphius cavirostris), Blainville’s (Mesoplodon densirostris) and an unknown species of Mesoplodon sp. (designated as Beaked Whale Gulf — BWG). For Gervais’ and Cuvier’s beaked whales, we estimated weekly animal density using two methods, one based on the number of echolocation clicks, and another based on the detection of animal groups during 5 min time-bins. Density estimates derived from these two methods were in good general agreement. At two sites in the western GOM, Gervais’ beaked whales were present throughout the monitoring period, but Cuvier’s beaked whales were present only seasonally, with periods of low density during the summer and higher density in the winter. At an eastern GOM site, both Gervais’ and Cuvier’s beaked whales had a high density throughout the monitoring period.

Jones, JM, Thayre BJ, Roth EH, Mahoney M, Sia I, Merculief K, Jackson C, Zeller C, Clare M, Bacon A, Weaver S, Gentes Z, Small RJ, Stirling I, Wiggins SM, Hildebrand JA.  2014.  Ringed, bearded, and ribbon seal vocalizations north of Barrow, Alaska: Seasonal presence and relationship with sea ice. Arctic. 67:203-222. AbstractWebsite

The acoustic repertoires of ringed, bearded, and ribbon seals are described, along with their seasonal occurrence and relationship to sea ice concentration. Acoustic recordings were made between September and June over three years (2006-09) along the continental slope break in the Chukchi Sea, 120 km north-northwest of Barrow, Alaska. Vocalizations of ringed and bearded seals occurred in winter and during periods of 80%-100% ice cover but were mostly absent during open water periods. The presence of ringed and bearded seal calls throughout winter and spring suggests that some portion of their population is overwintering. Analysis of the repertoire of ringed and bearded seal calls shows seasonal variation. Ringed seal calls are primarily barks in winter and yelps in spring, while bearded seal moans increase during spring. Ribbon seal calls were detected only in the fall of 2008 during the open water period. The repertoire of known ribbon seal vocalizations was expanded to include three additional calls, and two stereotyped call sequences were common. Retrospective analyses of ringed seal recordings from 1982 and ribbon seal recordings from 1967 showed a high degree of stability in call repertoire across large spatial and temporal scales.

McDonald, MA, Hildebrand JA, Wiggins SM, Thiele D, Glasgow D, Moore SE.  2005.  Sei whale sounds recorded in the Antarctic. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 118:3941-3945.   10.1121/1.2130944   AbstractWebsite

Sei whales are the least well known acoustically of all the rorquals, with only two brief descriptions of their calls previously reported. Recordings of low-frequency tonal and frequency swept calls were made near a group of four or five sei whales in waters west of the Antarctic Peninsula on 19 February 2003. These whales also produced broadband sounds which can be described as growls or whooshes. Many of the tonal and frequency swept calls (30 out of 68) consist of multiple parts with a frequency step between the two parts, this being the most unique characteristic of the calls, allowing them to be distinguished from the calls of other whale species. The average duration of the tonal calls is 0.45 +/- 0.3 s and the average frequency is 433 +/- 192 Hz. Using a calibrated seafloor recorder to determine the absolute calibration of a sonobuoy system, the maximum source level of the tonal calls was 156 +/- 3.6 dB re 1 microPa at 1 m. Each call had different character and there was no temporal pattern in the calling.

Gassmann, M, Wiggins SM, Hildebrand JA.  2015.  Three-dimensional tracking of Cuvier's beaked whales' echolocation sounds using nested hydrophone arrays. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 138:2483-2494.   10.1121/1.4927417   AbstractWebsite

Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris) were tracked using two volumetric small-aperture (similar to 1 m element spacing) hydrophone arrays, embedded into a large-aperture (similar to 1 km element spacing) seafloor hydrophone array of five nodes. This array design can reduce the minimum number of nodes that are needed to record the arrival of a strongly directional echolocation sound from 5 to 2, while providing enough time-differences of arrivals for a three-dimensional localization without depending on any additional information such as multipath arrivals. To illustrate the capabilities of this technique, six encounters of up to three Cuvier's beaked whales were tracked over a two-month recording period within an area of 20 km(2) in the Southern California Bight. Encounter periods ranged from 11 min to 33 min. Cuvier's beaked whales were found to reduce the time interval between echolocation clicks while alternating between two inter-click-interval regimes during their descent towards the seafloor. Maximum peak-to-peak source levels of 179 and 224 dB re 1 mu Pa @ 1 m were estimated for buzz sounds and on-axis echolocation clicks (directivity index = 30 dB), respectively. Source energy spectra of the on-axis clicks show significant frequency components between 70 and 90 kHz, in addition to their typically noted FM upsweep at 40-60 kHz. (C) 2015 Acoustical Society of America.