Publications

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1981
Herron, EM, Cande SC, Hall BR.  1981.  An Active Spreading Center Collides with a Subduction Zone - a Geophysical Survey of the Chile Margin Triple Junction. Geological Society of America Memoirs. 154:683-701. AbstractWebsite
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1979
Rabinowitz, PD, Cande SC, Hayes DE.  1979.  The J-anomaly in the Central North Atlantic Ocean. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 43:879-886.   10.2973/dsdp.proc.43.145.1979   Abstract

The J anomaly is a linear zone of high-amplitude magnetic anomalies, observed in the eastern North Atlantic north of the Canary Island lineament and the western North Atlantic north of the New England seamounts. Analyses of these anomalies show that the anomalous amplitude zones were formed at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge axis and thus define isochrons. Along strike, the J anomaly can be separated into two regions, one of high and one of intermediate anomaly amplitudes. In the eastern Atlantic where these amplitude variations are best documented, the boundary between the two regions occurs at a change in strike in the magnetic lineation pattern. The anomalous distribution of magnetization which is responsible for the unusual shape of the J anomaly includes crust slightly younger than MA to slightly younger than M-0. The J anomaly was probably caused by a large increase in the intensity of magnetization. DSDP Site 384 is between anomalies M-2 and M-3, and thus does not lie within the inferred zone of anomalous magnetization.

Blakely, RJ, Cande SC.  1979.  Marine magnetic anomalies. Reviews of Geophysics. 17:204-214.   10.1029/RG017i002p00204   AbstractWebsite

Marine magnetic data have been available for many years from all of the world's oceans, and their contribution to marine geophysics and geology is profound. These data, for example, have allowed charting the age of the ocean floor, reconstruction of the geologic history of the major ocean basins, development of a Cenozoic and Mesozoic timescale of geomagnetic reversals, and speculation on the processes of sea-floor spreading. Research on these and similar problems actively continued during this quadrennial, but here we discuss only a few topics in which we believe the most significant advances have been made during the last four years: the source of marine magnetic anomalies, the geomagnetic time-scale, high-amplitude anomalies, and studies of back-arc basins.

1978
Cande, SC.  1978.  Anomalous Behavior of Paleomagnetic Field Inferred from Skewness of Anomalies-33 and Anomalies-34. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 40:275-286.   10.1016/0012-821x(78)90098-5   AbstractWebsite

Marine magnetic anomalies 33 and 34, corresponding to the first two reversals following the long normal polarity interval in the Cretaceous, are anomalously skewed by 30° to 40° throughout the North and South Atlantic. This phenomenon is most likely related to some aspect of the dipole paleomagnetic field. Specifically the magnetic field at the time of anomalies 33 and 34 appears to be characterized by the following: the dipole field gradually decreases in average intensity between reversals and/or there is an increase in the frequency or duration of undetected short polarity events toward the end of long periods (>106 years) of predominantly one polarity. Such long-period trends in the field are in conflict with the popular model for the generation of the earth's magnetic field that treats reversals as a Poisson process and assumes that the core has no memory greater than about 10^4 years.

Rabinowitz, PD, Cande SC, Hayes DE.  1978.  Grand Banks and J-Anomaly Ridge. Science. 202:71-73.   10.1126/science.202.4363.71   AbstractWebsite
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Cande, SC, Rabinowitz PD.  1978.  Magnetic anomalies of the continental margin of Brazil. , Tulsa, Okla., United States (USA): Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol., Tulsa, Okla. Abstract
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Cande, SC, Larson RL, Labrecque JL.  1978.  Magnetic Lineations in Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 41:434-440.   10.1016/0012-821x(78)90174-7   AbstractWebsite

Magnetic anomalies of low amplitude (<100 gammas) are present in the Jurassic magnetic quiet zone of the western Pacific Ocean. These small anomalies are lineated and can be correlated among the Phoenix, Hawaiian and Japanese lineation patterns. Thus, they represent seafloor spreading that recorded some sort of magnetic field phenomena prior to magnetic anomaly M25 at 153 m.y. B.P. The most likely possibility is that they represent a series of late Jurassic magnetic field reversals that occurred during a period of anomalously low magnetic field intensity. We propose a time scale of magnetic reversals between 153 and 158 m.y. B.P. to account for these anomalies and suggest that the dipole magnetic field intensity increased by a factor of about four from 160 to 140 m.y. B.P. in the late Jurassic.

Cande, SC, Rabinowitz PD.  1978.  Mesozoic seafloor spreading bordering conjugate continental margins of Angola and Brazil. Proceedings - Offshore Technology Conference. :1869-1876., [Dallas, TX], United States (USA): Offshore Technology Conference, [Dallas, TX] AbstractWebsite
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1977
Cande, SC, Kristoffersen Y.  1977.  Late Cretaceous Magnetic-Anomalies in North-Atlantic. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 35:215-224.   10.1016/0012-821x(77)90124-8   AbstractWebsite

An identification of anomalies 31–34 is presented for the North Atlantic. North of the Azores-Gibraltar Ridge this implies a revision of the identification of the magnetic anomalies older than anomaly 26. DSDP site 10 in the western North Atlantic appears to be located on the old end of anomaly 33. The relative spacings of anomalies 29–34 in the North and South Atlantic, North and South Pacific and Indian Oceans are compared and the estimated relative widths of the magnetic polarity intervals in the Late Cretaceous are revised.

Labrecque, JL, Kent DV, Cande SC.  1977.  Revised Magnetic Polarity Time Scale for Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic Time. Geology. 5:330-335.   10.1130/0091-7613(1977)5<330:rmptsf>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

A revision of the Heirtzler and others magnetic reversal time scale is presented. In addition to incorporating published studies which have increased the resolution and accuracy of their time scale, we have revised the relative lengths of anomalies 4A to 5 and 29 to 34 and have eliminated anomaly 14. We have calibrated the time scale by choosing an age of 3.32 m.y. B.P. for the older reversal boundary of anomaly 2A and 64.9 m.y. B.P. for the older reversal boundary of anomaly 29. The resulting magnetic reversal time scale is in reasonable agreement with the biostratigraphic ages from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) drill holes.

1976
Cande, SC, Kent DV.  1976.  Constraints Imposed by Shape of Marine Magnetic-Anomalies on Magnetic Source. Journal of Geophysical Research. 81:4157-4162.   10.1029/JB081i023p04157   AbstractWebsite

A two-layer source model for marine magnetic anomalies can accommodate several observations made on the shapes of anomalies in the Pacific and southeast Indian oceans. The layers are defined on the basis of cooling history and magnetic properties. The upper layer consists of rapidly cooled basalts, which acquire a strong magnetization near the ridge axis. This layer, with narrow transition zones, can account for the observed short polarity events. The lower layer consists of moderately magnetized, slowly cooled intrusive rocks in the lower oceanic crust. The transition zones in this layer are broad, sloping boundaries reflecting the delayed acquisition of magnetization with depth as, for example, along a sloping Curie point isotherm. The lower layer can account for a skewness discrepancy of 10°–15° in the observed skewness of some anomalies. It is shown that the upper layer has to contribute about three quarters of the total amplitude of magnetic anomalies in order for this model to simulate the observed shape of the anomalies. The model predicts that a deep drill hole located just to the older side of a reversal boundary in the upper part of the oceanic crust should encounter a magnetization polarity reversal within the lower oceanic crust.

Rabinowitz, PD, Cande SC, Labrecque JL.  1976.  Falkland Escarpment and Agulhas Fracture Zone - Boundary between Oceanic and Continental Basement at Conjugate Continental Margins. Anais Da Academia Brasileira De Ciencias. 48:241-251. AbstractWebsite
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Cande, SC.  1976.  Paleomagnetic Pole from Late Cretaceous Marine Magnetic-Anomalies in Pacific. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 44:547-566.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.1976.tb00292.x   AbstractWebsite

A method for finding palaeomagnetic poles based on the skewness of marine magnetic anomalies is applied to anomalies 27–32 on the Pacific plate. Palaeomagnetic poles based on the observed skewness of these anomalies are found to be inconsistent with other palaeomagnetic data. The skewnesses of anomalies 27–32 on opposite sides of the Pacifio-Antarctic Ridge are compared: a 12° to 28° skewness discrepancy is found across the ridge crest. By assuming that there is a systematic discrepancy of 12° to 14° in the skewness of anomalies 27–32, the inconsistencies in the pole positions and in the skewness of anomalies across the ridge crest are eliminated. The systematic skewness discrepancy is called ' anomalous skewness '. Anomalous skewness can be explained either by modifying the assumed structure of the magnetic source layer or the assumed behaviour of the palaeomagnetic field. After a systematic correction of 14° is made to the observed data, a unique palaeomagnetic pole is found for the North and South-west Pacific. This pole indicates about 20° of northward motion in the last 70 My, and suggests that there has been little or no motion between the two areas since the Late Cretaceous.

Schouten, H, Cande SC.  1976.  Paleomagnetic Poles from Marine Magnetic-Anomalies. Geophysical Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society. 44:567-575.   10.1111/j.1365-246X.1976.tb00293.x   AbstractWebsite

A method is presented for determining palaeomagnetic poles from the skewness of marine magnetic anomalies. The skewness of a magnetic anomaly is measured by a phase parameter, θ. θ by itself is not sufficient to determine a unique palaeomagnetic pole. Instead θ defines a semi-great circle of possible palaeomagnetic poles. Two semi-great circles determined for two sets of contemporaneous anomalies on a rigid plate intersect to give the actual palaeomagnetic pole. θ is determined by using linear filtering techniques to de-skew observed marine magnetic anomaly profiles. A locus of palaeomagnetic poles also can be determined from the amplitude ratios of two sets of contemporaneous anomalies on the same rigid plate.

1974
Cande, SC, Labreque JL.  1974.  Behavior of Earths Paleomagnetic Field from Small-Scale Marine Magnetic-Anomalies. Nature. 247:26-28.   10.1038/247026a0   AbstractWebsite

Certain areas of the ocean crust exhibit a high resolution recording of the magnetic field history. A recent survey1 of the Gorda-Juan de Fuca Rise area in the North Pacific displays short wavelength (10 to 20 km), low amplitude (40 to 80 gamma) features superimposed upon the larger scale (30 to 200 km, 200 to 800 gamma) magnetic anomaly pattern of Heirtzler et al. 2. Many of these small scale anomalies form lineations which are parallel to the major magnetic lineations of Heirtzler et al. Sequences of small scale anomalies form characteristic patterns within intervals previously thought to be of constant polarity. We have identified two of these patterns that we observed in the North Pacific on profiles from the South Pacific and South-east Indian Oceans. Because of their global distribution, we conclude that the small scale anomalies are due to time variations of the Earth's magnetic field. That is, these features record either short (less than 3 × 10^4 yr) polarity reversals or fluctuations in the intensity of the dipole moment, perhaps with periods greater than 3 × 10^4