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McFarquhar, GM, Iacobellis S, Somerville RCJ.  2003.  SCM simulations of tropical ice clouds using observationally based parameterizations of microphysics. Journal of Climate. 16:1643-1664.   10.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<1643:ssotic>;2   AbstractWebsite

A new bulk parameterization of the dependence of ice cloud effective radius (r(e)) on ice water content (IWC) is developed using in situ observations of the size and shape of ice crystals in tropical anvils. This work extends previous parameterizations because information about the number, size, and shape of ice crystals with diameters smaller than 100 m m is included and in that a range of possible fit coefficients, rather than single values, is given to reflect the fact that r(e) can vary significantly about its mean parameterized value. The parameterization is implemented in the Scripps single column model (SCM), and simulations of tropical clouds over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ( ARM) program's tropical western Pacific (TWP) site and over the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (TOGA COARE) domain are conducted. Sensitivity studies determine how the range of possible fit coefficients, which reflects the uncertainty in the parameterization of r(e), relates to uncertainties in modeled cloud radiative forcings (CRFs). When r(e) is chosen one or two standard deviations higher or lower than the mean parameterized value, temporally averaged shortwave CRFs can differ by up to 17.7 W m(-2) from that value estimated from the mean parameterized r(e), the difference depending on the time period and location; differences in longwave CRFs are substantially less. When other uncertainties in the parameterization are accounted for, such as those based on the observed numbers of smaller crystals, CRFs can differ by up to 25 W m(-2) from that determined by the base parameterization. When r(e) is randomly chosen for each simulation time within one or two standard deviations of the most likely r(e) for that IWC, shortwave CRFs can still differ from that of the base simulation by up to 13.9 W m(-2), with an enhancement of shortwave reflection of up to 4.9 W m(-2) observed on average. Therefore, the average of a series of such simulations may not equal a simulation of average conditions, a finding that may have important ramifications. Both interactive simulations, where changes in cloud heating rates feed back upon predicted cloud masses, and noninteractive simulations, where changes in heating rate do not feed back upon cloud mass, are performed in order to determine how and why different parameterizations affect the CRFs. It is shown that differences in longwave heating rates, associated with different versions of the parameterization, alter the mass of ice and liquid water produced at various levels, this change in cloud mass in turn affects the CRF. This change can either amplify or reduce the change in CRF associated with the more direct effect of varying the r(e) parameterization, namely, that smaller particles reflect more shortwave radiation given the same mass content. The amount of liquid water present in low clouds is an important indicator of whether changing ice cloud microphysical properties will have an important effect on CRF.

Shell, KM, Frouin R, Nakamoto S, Somerville RCJ.  2003.  Atmospheric response to solar radiation absorbed by phytoplankton. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 108   10.1029/2003jd003440   AbstractWebsite

[1] Phytoplankton alter the absorption of solar radiation, affecting upper ocean temperature and circulation. These changes, in turn, influence the atmosphere through modification of the sea surface temperature (SST). To investigate the effects of the present-day phytoplankton concentration on the atmosphere, an atmospheric general circulation model was forced by SST changes due to phytoplankton. The modified SST was obtained from ocean general circulation model runs with space- and time-varying phytoplankton abundances from Coastal Zone Color Scanner data. The atmospheric simulations indicate that phytoplankton amplify the seasonal cycle of the lowest atmospheric layer temperature. This amplification has an average magnitude of 0.3 degreesK but may reach over 1 degreesK locally. The surface warming in the summer is marginally larger than the cooling in the winter, so that on average annually and globally, phytoplankton warm the lowest layer by about 0.05 degreesK. Over the ocean the surface air temperature changes closely follow the SST changes. Significant, often amplified, temperature changes also occur over land. The climatic effect of phytoplankton extends throughout the troposphere, especially in middle latitudes where increased subsidence during summer traps heat. The amplification of the seasonal cycle of air temperature strengthens tropical convection in the summer hemisphere. In the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean a decreased SST strengthens the Walker circulation and weakens the Hadley circulation. These significant atmospheric changes indicate that the radiative effects of phytoplankton should not be overlooked in studies of climate change.

Lane, DE, Goris K, Somerville RCJ.  2002.  Radiative transfer through broken clouds: Observations and model validation. Journal of Climate. 15:2921-2933.   10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<2921:rttbco>;2   AbstractWebsite

Stochastic radiative transfer is investigated as a method of improving shortwave cloud-radiation parameterizations by incorporating the effects of statistically determined cloud-size and cloud-spacing distributions. Ground-based observations from 16 days at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site are used to derive a statistical description of scattered clouds. The data are ingested into a stochastic, shortwave radiative transfer model. The typical cloud-base height of the most prevalent cloud type, fair-weather cumulus, is 1100 m. Low cloud-fraction conditions are common, with observed cloud liquid water paths between 20 and 80 g m(-2). Cloud-fraction amounts calculated using ceilometer data compare reasonably well with those reported in weather logs. The frequency distribution of cloud size can be described by a decaying exponential: the number of clouds decreases significantly with increasing cloud size. The minimum detectable cloud size is 200 m and the largest observed cloud is approximately 4 km. Using both a stochastic model and a plane-parallel model, the predicted radiation fields are compared and evaluated against an independent observational dataset. The stochastic model is sensitive to input cloud fraction and cloud field geometry. This model performs poorly when clouds are present in adjacent model layers due to random overlapping of the clouds. Typically, the models agree within 30 W m(-2) for downwelling shortwave radiation at the surface. Improvement in the observations used to calculate optical depth will be necessary to realize fully the potential of the stochastic technique.

Xie, SC, Xu KM, Cederwall RT, Bechtold P, Delgenio AD, Klein SA, Cripe DG, Ghan SJ, Gregory D, Iacobellis SF, Krueger SK, Lohmann U, Petch JC, Randall DA, Rotstayn LD, Somerville RCJ, Sud YC, Von Salzen K, Walker GK, Wolf A, Yio JJ, Zhang GJ, Zhang MG.  2002.  Intercomparison and evaluation of cumulus parametrizations under summertime midlatitude continental conditions. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 128:1095-1135.   10.1256/003590002320373229   AbstractWebsite

This study reports the Single-Column Model (SCM) part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)/the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study (GCSS) joint SCM and Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM) Case 3 intercomparison study, with a focus on evaluation Of Cumulus parametrizations used in SCMs. Fifteen SCMs are evaluated under summertime midlatitude continental conditions using data collected at the ARM Southern Great Plains site during the summer 1997 Intensive Observing Period. Results from ten CRMs are also used to diagnose problems in the SCMs. It is shown that most SCMs can generally capture well the convective events that were well-developed within the SCM domain, while most of them have difficulties in simulating the occurrence of those convective events that only occurred within a small part of the domain. All models significantly underestimate the surface stratiform precipitation. A third of them produce large errors in surface precipitation and thermodynamic structures. Deficiencies in convective triggering mechanisms are thought to be one of the major reasons. Using a triggering mechanism that is based on the vertical integral of parcel buoyant energy without additional appropriate constraints results in overactive convection, which in turn leads to large systematic warm/dry biases in the troposphere. It is also shown that a non-penetrative convection scheme can underestimate the depth of instability for midlatitude convection, which leads to large systematic cold/moist biases in the troposphere. SCMs agree well quantitatively with CRMs in the updraught mass fluxes, while most models significantly underestimate the downdraught mass fluxes. Neglect of mesoscale updraught and downdraught mass fluxes in the SCMs contributes considerably to the discrepancies between the SCMs and the CRMs. In addition, uncertainties in the diagnosed mass fluxes in the CRMs and deficiencies with cumulus parametrizations are not negligible. Similar results are obtained in the sensitivity tests when different forcing approaches are used. Finally. sensitivity tests from an SCM indicate that its simulations can be greatly improved when its triggering mechanism and closure assumption are improved.

Lane, DE, Somerville RCJ, Iacobellis S.  2001.  Evaluation of a Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model Using Ground-based Measurements. IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation : Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium, St. Petersberg, Russia, 24-29 July 2000. ( Smith WL, Timofeyev YM, Eds.).:245-248.: A Deepak Publishing Abstract
Iacobellis, S, Somerville RCJ, Lane DE.  2001.  SCM Sensitivity to Microphysics, Radiation, and Convection Algorithms. IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation : Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium, St. Petersberg, Russia, 24-29 July 2000. ( Smith WL, Timofeyev YM, Eds.).:1287-1290.: A Deepak Publishing Abstract
Lane, DE, Somerville RCJ, Iacobellis SF.  2000.  Sensitivity of cloud and radiation parameterizations to changes in vertical resolution. Journal of Climate. 13:915-922.   10.1175/1520-0442(2000)013<0915:socarp>;2   AbstractWebsite

The importance of vertical resolution to the parameterization of cloud-radiation processes in climate models is examined. Using a one-dimensional single-column model containing a typical suite of physical parameterizations, the authors test 12 different vertical resolutions, ranging from 16 to 60 layers. The model products are evaluated against observational data taken during three intensive observation periods from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. The simulated values of cloud-radiation variables display a marked sensitivity to changes in vertical resolution. This sensitivity is apparent in all the model variables examined. The cloud fraction varies typically by approximately 10% over the range of resolutions tested, a substantial amount when compared to the typical observed values of about 50%. The outgoing longwave radiation typically changes by approximately 10-20 W m(-2) as resolution is varied, which is of the order of 5%-10% of the observed value. The downwelling shortwave radiation change is somewhat smaller but is still significant. Furthermore, the model results have not converged even at a resolution of 60 layers, and there are systematic differences between model results and observations.

Ghan, S, Randall D, Xu KM, Cederwall R, Cripe D, Hack J, Iacobellis S, Klein S, Krueger S, Lohmann U, Pedretti J, Robock A, Rotstayn L, Somerville R, Stenchikov G, Sud Y, Walker G, Xie SC, Yio J, Zhang MH.  2000.  A comparison of single column model simulations of summertime midlatitude continental convection. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 105:2091-2124.   Doi 10.1029/1999jd900971   AbstractWebsite

Eleven different single-column models (SCMs) and one cloud ensemble model (CEM) are driven by boundary conditions observed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program southern Great Plains site for a 17 day period during the summer of 1995. Comparison of the model simulations reveals common signatures identifiable as products of errors in the boundary conditions. Intermodel differences in the simulated temperature, humidity, cloud, precipitation, and radiative fluxes reflect differences in model resolution or physical parameterizations, although sensitive dependence on initial conditions can also contribute to intermodel differences. All models perform well at times but poorly at others. Although none of the SCM simulations stands out as superior to the others, the simulation by the CEM is in several respects in better agreement with the observations than the simulations by the SCMs. Nudging of the simulated temperature and humidity toward observations generally improves the simulated cloud and radiation fields as well as the simulated temperature and humidity but degrades the precipitation simulation for models with large temperature and humidity biases without nudging. Although some of the intermodel differences have not been explained, others have been identified as model problems that can be or have been corrected as a result of the comparison.

Iacobellis, SF, Somerville RCJ.  2000.  Implications of microphysics for cloud-radiation parameterizations: Lessons from TOGA COARE. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 57:161-183.   10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<0161:iomfcr>;2   AbstractWebsite

A single-column model (SCM) and observational data collected during TOGA COARE were used to investigate the sensitivity of model-produced cloud properties and radiative fluxes to the representation of cloud microphysics in the cloud-radiation parameterizations. Four 78-day SCM numerical experiments were conducted for the atmospheric column overlying the COARE Intensive Flux Array. Each SCM experiment used a different cloud-radiation parameterization with a different representation of cloud microphysics. All the SCM experiments successfully reproduced most of the observed temporal variability in precipitation, cloud fraction, shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and downwelling surface shortwave flux. The magnitude and temporal variability of the downward surface longwave flux was overestimated by all the SCM experiments. This bins is probably due to clouds forming too low in the model atmosphere. Time-averaged model results were used to examine the sensitivity of model performance to the differences between the four cloud-radiation parameterization packages. The SCM versions that calculated cloud amount as a function of cloud liquid water, instead of using a relative humidity-based cloud scheme, produced smaller amounts of both low and deep convective clouds. Additionally, larger high (cirrus) cloud emissivities were obtained with interactive cloud liquid water schemes than with the relative humidity-based scheme. Surprisingly. calculating cloud optical properties as a function of cloud liquid water amount, instead of parameterizing them based on temperature, humidity, and pressure, resulted in relatively little change in radiative fluxes. However. model radiative fluxes were sensitive to the specification of the effective cloud droplet radius. Optically thicker low clouds and optically thinner high clouds were produced when an interactive effective cloud droplet radius scheme was used instead of specifying a constant value. Comparison of model results to both surface and satellite observations revealed that model experiments that calculated cloud properties as a function of cloud liquid water produced more realistic cloud amounts and radiative fluxes. The most realistic vertical distribution of clouds was obtained from the SCM experiment that included the most complete representation of cloud microphysics. Due to the limitations of SCMs. the above conclusions are model dependent and need to be tested in a general circulation model.

Somerville, RCJ.  2000.  Using single-column models to improve cloud-radiation parameterizations. General circulation model development. ( Randall DA, Ed.).:641-657., San Diego: Academic Press Abstract

General Circulation Models (GCMs) are rapidly assuming widespread use as powerful tools for predicting global events on time scales of months to decades, such as the onset of EL Nino, monsoons, soil moisture saturation indices, global warming estimates, and even snowfall predictions. While GCMs have been praised for helping to foretell the current El Nino and its impact on droughts in Indonesia, its full power is only now being recognized by international scientists and governments who seek to link GCMs to help them estimate fish harvests, risk of floods, landslides, and even forest fires. Scientists in oceanography, hydrology, meteorology, and climatology and civil, ocean, and geological engineers perceive a need for a reference on GCM design. In this compilation of information by an internationally recognized group of experts, Professor Randall brings together the knowledge base of the forerunners in theoretical and applied frontiers of GCM development. General Circulation Model Development focuses on the past, present, and future design of numerical methods for general circulation modeling, as well as the physical parameterizations required for their proper implementation. Additional chapters on climate simulation and other applications provide illustrative examples of state-of-the-art GCM design. Key Features * Foreword by Norman Phillips * Authoritative overviews of current issues and ideas on global circulation modeling by leading experts * Retrospective and forward-looking chapters by Akio Arakawa of UCLA * Historical perspectives on the early years of general circulation modeling * Indispensable reference for researchers and graduate students.

Iacobellis, SF, Frouin R, Somerville RCJ.  1999.  Direct climate forcing by biomass-burning aerosols: Impact of correlations between controlling variables. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 104:12031-12045.   10.1029/1999jd900001   AbstractWebsite

Estimates of the direct climate forcing by condensed organic species resulting from biomass burning have been made using bulk radiative transfer models of various complexity and the SUNRAY radiation code of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts general circulation model. Aerosols arising from the burning of tropical forests and savannas as well as those from biomass fires outside the tropics are considered. The bulk models give values ranging from -1.0 to -0.6 W m(-2), which compare with -0.7 W m(-2) using the SUNRAY code. There appears to be significant uncertainty in these values due to uncertainties in the model input parameters. The difference is only 13% between the forcing obtained by taking into account the spatial and temporal distribution of the controlling variables and the forcing obtained using global averages fur all the variables. This indicates that the effects of variations in the controlling variables tend to compensate. Yet the forcing varies by up to 34% depending on which variables are set to global averages. The SUNRAY results show that the efficiency at which the biomass-burning aerosols backscatter sunlight in cloudy conditions is 0.53, a value significantly higher than that reported for sulfate aerosols. Most of the difference is due to the relatively low latitude (hence low sun zenith angle) of the biomass-burning aerosol sources relative to the sulfate aerosol sources. The implication is that clouds should not be assumed to have a reflectivity of unity in bulk models. Comparison of SUNRAY and bulk model results points to other potential problems with bulk models. First, the use in bulk models of mean aerosol optical properties across the entire solar spectrum has significant impact on the calculated forcing and may account for 23% of the difference between SUNRAY and bulk model estimates in clear-sky conditions. Second, neglecting multiple scattering in bulk models introduces significant differences in the clear-sky forcing at high sun zenith angles.

Somerville, RCJ, Iacobellis SF.  1999.  Single-column models, ARM observations, and GCM cloud-radiation schemes. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth Part B-Hydrology Oceans and Atmosphere. 24:733-740.   10.1016/s1464-1909(99)00074-x   AbstractWebsite

Among the most serious sources of uncertainty in current general circulation models (GCMs) is the treatment of clouds and cloud-radiation interactions. We have used a single-column model (SCM) diagnostically to evaluate parameterizations against observations from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. We find that schemes with explicit cloud water budgets and interactive radiative properties are potentially capable of matching observational data closely. In our SCM, using an interactive cloud droplet radius decreases the cloud optical thickness and cloud infrared emittance of high clouds, which acts to increase the downwelling surface shortwave flux and the outgoing longwave radiation. However, it is difficult to evaluate the realism of the vertical distribution of model-produced cloud extinction, cloud emittance, cloud liquid water content and effective cloud droplet radius until high-quality observations of these quantities become more widely available. We also find that in the SCM, cloud parameterizations often underestimate the observed cloud amount, and that ARM observations indicate the presence of clouds while the corresponding maximum relative humidity is less than 80%. This implies that the underlying concept of a critical gridpoint relative humidity of about 80% for cloud formation, as used in many GCM cloud parameterizations, may need to be reexamined. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lubin, D, Chen B, Bromwich DH, Somerville RCJ, Lee WH, Hines KM.  1998.  The impact of Antarctic cloud radiative properties on a GCM climate simulation. Journal of Climate. 11:447-462.   10.1175/1520-0442(1998)011<0447:tioacr>;2   AbstractWebsite

A sensitivity study to evaluate the impact upon regional and hemispheric climate caused by changing the optical properties of clouds over the Antarctic continent is conducted with the NCAR Community Model version 2 (CCM2). Sensitivity runs are performed in which radiation interacts with ice clouds with particle sizes of 10 and 40 mu m rather than with the standard 10-mu m water clouds. The experiments are carried out for perpetual January conditions with the diurnal cycle considered. The effects of these cloud changes on the Antarctic radiation budget are examined by considering cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere and net radiation at the surface. Changes of the cloud radiative properties to those of 10-mu m ice clouds over Antarctica have significant Impacts on regional climate: temperature increases throughout the Antarctic troposphere by 1 degrees-2 degrees C and total cloud fraction over Antarctica is smaller than that of the control at low levels but is larger than that of the control in the mid- to upper troposphere. As a result of Antarctic warming and changes in the north-south temperature gradient, the drainage flows at the surface as well as the meridional mass circulation are weakened. Similarly, the circumpolar trough weakens significantly by 4-8 hPa and moves northward by about 4 degrees-5 degrees latitude. This regional mass field adjustment halves the strength of the simulated surface westerly winds. As a result of indirect thermodynamic and dynamic effects, significant changes are observed in the zonal mean circulation and eddies in the middle latitudes. In fact, the simulated impacts of the Antarctic cloud radiative alteration are not confined to the Southern Hemisphere. The meridional mean mass flux, zonal wind, and latent heat release exhibit statistically significant changes in the Tropics and even extratropics of the Northern Hemisphere. The simulation with radiative properties of 40-mu m ice clouds produces colder surface temperatures over Antarctica by up to 3 degrees C compared to the control. Otherwise, the results of the 40-mu m ice cloud simulation are similar to those of the 10-mu m ice cloud simulation.

Lee, WH, Iacobellis SF, Somerville RCJ.  1997.  Cloud radiation forcings and feedbacks: General circulation model tests and observational validation. Journal of Climate. 10:2479-2496.   10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<2479:crfafg>;2   AbstractWebsite

Using an atmospheric general circulation model (the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM2), the effects on climate sensitivity of several different cloud radiation parameterizations have been investigated. In addition to the original cloud radiation scheme of CCM2, four parameterizations incorporating prognostic cloud water were tested: one version with prescribed cloud radiative properties and three other versions with interactive cloud radiative properties. The authors' numerical experiments employ perpetual July integrations driven by globally constant sea surface temperature forcings of two degrees, both positive and negative. A diagnostic radiation calculation has been applied to investigate the partial contributions of high, middle, and low cloud to the total cloud radiative forcing, as well as the contributions of water vapor, temperature, and cloud to the net climate feedback. The high cloud net radiative forcing is positive, and the middle and low cloud net radiative forcings are negative. The total net cloud forcing is negative in all of the model versions. The effect of interactive cloud radiative properties on global climate sensitivity is significant. The net cloud radiative feedbacks consist of quite different shortwave and longwave components between the schemes with interactive cloud radiative properties and the schemes with specified properties. The increase in cloud water content in the warmer climate leads to optically thicker middle-and low-level clouds and in turn to negative shortwave feedbacks for the interactive radiative schemes, while the decrease in cloud amount simply produces a positive shortwave feedback for the schemes with a specified cloud water path. For the longwave feedbacks, the decrease in high effective cloudiness for the schemes without interactive radiative properties leads to a negative feedback, while for the other cases, the longwave feedback is positive. These cloud radiation parameterizations are empirically validated by using a single-column diagnostic model, together with measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and from the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Combined Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment. The inclusion of prognostic cloud water produces a notable improvement in the realism of the parameterizations, as judged by these observations. Furthermore, the observational evidence suggests that deriving cloud radiative properties from cloud water content and microphysical characteristics is a promising route to further improvement.

Soloviev, GI, Shapiro VD, Somerville RCJ, Shkoller B.  1996.  The tilting instability with buoyant forcing in a two-dimensional viscous fluid. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 53:2671-2684.   10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<2671:ttiwbf>;2   AbstractWebsite

The tilting instability is an instability of a two-dimensional fluid that transforms convective motion into shear flow. As a generalization of previous analytical work on the tilting instability in an ideal fluid, the authors investigate the instability with thermal buoyancy included as a source supporting convection against viscous dissipation; The results show two distinct instabilities: for large Rayleigh numbers, the instability is similar to the tilting instability in an inviscid fluid; for small Rayleigh numbers, it resembles a dissipative (i.e., viscous) instability driven by thermal buoyancy. This paper presents a linear stability analysis together with numerical solutions describing the nonlinear evolution of the flow for both types of instabilities. It is shown that the tilting instability develops for values of the aspect ratio (the ratio of the horizontal spatial scale to the vertical scale) that are less than unity. In the case of an ideal fluid, the instability completely transforms the convection into a shear flow, while the final stage of the dissipative instability is one of coexisting states of convection and horizontal shear flow. This study is confined to two dimensions, and the role of the tilling instability in three dimensions remains a subject for future research. In two dimensions, however, the tilting instability can readily generate shear flows from convective motions, and this mechanism may well be important in the interpretation of the results of two-dimensional numerical simulations.

Byrne, RN, Somerville RCK, Subasilar B.  1996.  Broken-cloud enhancement of solar radiation absorption. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 53:878-886.   10.1175/1520-0469(1996)053<0878:bceosr>;2   AbstractWebsite

Observations cited by Ramanathan et al. and Cess et al. indicate systematic errors in the solar radiation parameterizations of the current atmospheric general circulation models. Cloudy scenes have an observational excess (or calculational deficit) of atmospheric absorption. Pilewskie and Valero have also reported anomalously large absorption. A simple model is presented here to show how fields of broken clouds cause average photon pathlengths to be greater than those predicted by homogeneous radiative transfer calculations of cloud-atmosphere ensemble with similar albedos, especially under and within the cloud layer. This one-sided bias is a contribution to the anomalous absorption. The model is illustrated quantitatively with a numerical stochastic radiative transfer calculation. More than one-half the anomaly is explained for the parameters used in the numerical example.

Lee, WH, Somerville RCJ.  1996.  Effects of alternative cloud radiation parameterizations in a general circulation model. Annales Geophysicae-Atmospheres Hydrospheres and Space Sciences. 14:107-114.   10.1007/s00585-996-0107-6   AbstractWebsite

Using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (MCAR) general circulation model (CCM2), a suite of alternative cloud radiation parameterizations has been tested. Our methodology relies on perpetual July integrations driven by +/-2 K sea surface temperature forcing. The tested parameterizations include relative humidity based clouds and versions of schemes involving a prognostic cloud water budget. We are especially interested in testing the effect of cloud optical thickness feedbacks on global climate sensitivity. All schemes exhibit negative cloud radiation feedbacks, i.e., cloud moderates the global warming. However, these negative net cloud radiation feedbacks consist of quite different shortwave and longwave components between a scheme with interactive cloud radiative properties and several schemes with specified cloud water paths. An increase in cloud water content in the warmer climate leads to optically thicker middle- and low-level clouds and in turn negative shortwave feedbacks for the interactive radiative scheme, while a decrease in cloud amount leads to a positive shortwave feedback for the other schemes. For the longwave feedbacks, a decrease in high effective cloudiness for the schemes without interactive radiative properties leads to a negative feedback, while no distinct changes in effective high cloudiness and the resulting feedback are exhibited for the scheme with interactive radiative properties. The resulting magnitude of negative net cloud radiation feed-back is largest for the scheme with interactive radiative properties. Even though the simulated values of cloud radiative forcing for the present climate using this method differ most from the observational data, the approach shows great promise for the future.

Randall, DA, Xu KM, Somerville RJC, Iacobellis S.  1996.  Single-column models and cloud ensemble models as links between observations and climate models. Journal of Climate. 9:1683-1697.   10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<1683:scmace>;2   AbstractWebsite

Among the methods that have been devised to test physical parameterizations used in general circulation models, one of the most promising involves the use of field data together with single-column models (SCMs) and/or cloud ensemble models. Here the authors briefly discuss the data requirements of such models and then give several examples of their use. Emphasis is on parameterizations of convection and cloud amount.

Somerville, RCJ, Iacobellis S, Lee WH.  1996.  Effects of cloud-radiation schemes on climate model results. World Resource Review. 8:321-333. Abstract

A current dilemma of climate modeling is that model results are strongly sensitive to the treatment of certain poorly-understood physical processes, especially cloud-radiation interactions. Thus, different models with alternative plausible parameterizations often give widely varying results. Yet, we typically have had little basis for estimating which parameterization is more realistic. Of the many physical processes involved in climate simulations, feedbacks due to cloud-radiation interactions are thought to be the largest single source of uncertainty. In fact, most of the global differences in results between leading climate models, as measured by their sensitivity to greenhouse gases, can be traced to different model treatments of cloud-radiation interactions.Using a modern atmospheric general circulation model (the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM2), we have investigated the effects on climate sensitivity of several different cloud-radiation parameterizations. At the same time, we have validated these parameterizations directly with observations from field experiments. In addition to the original cloud-radiation scheme of CCM2, we tested four parameterizations incorporating prognostic cloud water: one version with prescribed cloud radiative properties and three other versions with interactive cloud radiative properties. Comparisons with measurements suggest that schemes with explicit cloud water budgets and interactive radiative properties are potentially capable of matching observational data closely.

Somerville, R.  1996.  The Forgiving Air : Understanding Environmental Change. :xiv,195p.., Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press Abstract
Razafimpanilo, H, Frouin R, Iacobellis SF, Somerville RCJ.  1995.  Methodology for estimating burned area from AVHRR reflectance data. Remote Sensing of Environment. 54:273-289.   10.1016/0034-4257(95)00154-9   AbstractWebsite

Two methods are described to determine burned area from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data. The first method, or the ''linear method,'' employs Channel 2 reflectance, R(2), and is based on the nearly linear relationship between the fraction of pixel burned, P, and R(2). The second method, or the ''nonlinear method,'' employs the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from Channels 1 and 2 reflectances, and is based on the nonlinear relationship P=f(NDVI), a polynomial of order 2 in NDVI. The coefficients of the polynomial are parameterized as a function of the NDVI of the background before the fire event. Radiative transfer simulations indicate that the linear method, unlike the nonlinear method, must be applied to top-of-atmosphere reflectances that have been corrected for atmospheric influence. Sensitivity studies suggest that the methods are subject to some limitations. To avoid discontinuity problems, the original background (just before the fire) must be characterized by a Channel 2 reflectance above 0.07 and by a positive NDVI. To separate the useful signal from atmospheric effects, the fire scar must occupy at least 20% and 12% of the pixel area in the case of savanna and green vegetation (e.g., forest), respectively When applied to uniform pixels, the mean relative error on the fraction of area burned is about 20% for the linear method and 10% for the nonlinear method. The linear method gives better results for nonuniform pixels, but neither method can be used when the pixel contains low reflectance backgrounds (e.g., water).

Waliser, DE, Somerville RCJ.  1994.  Preferred Latitudes of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 51:1619-1639.   10.1175/1520-0469(1994)051<1619:plotic>;2   AbstractWebsite

The latitude preference of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is examined on the basis of observations, theory, and a modeling analysis. Observations show that convection is enhanced at latitudes of about 4-degrees to 10-degrees relative to the equator, even in regions where the sea surface temperature (SST) is maximum on the equator. Both linear shallow-water theory and a moist primitive equation model suggest a new explanation for the off-equatorial latitude preference of the ITCZ that requires neither the existence of zonally propagating disturbances nor an off-equatorial maximum in SST. The shallow-water theory indicates that a finite-width, zonally oriented, midtropospheric heat source (i.e., an ITCZ) produces the greatest local low-level convergence when placed a finite distance away from the equator. This result suggests that an ITCZ is most likely to be supported via low-level convergence of moist energy when located at these ''preferred'' latitudes away from die equator. For a plausible range of heating widths and damping parameters, the theoretically predicted latitude is approximately equal to the observed position(s) of the ITCZ(s). Analysis with an axially symmetric, moist, primitive equation model indicates that when the latent heating field is allowed to be determined internally, a positive feedback develops between the midtropospheric latent heating and the low-level convergence, with the effect of enhancing the organization of convection at latitudes of about 4-degrees to 12-degrees. Numerical experiments show that 1) two peaks in convective precipitation develop straddling the equator when the SST maximum is located on the equator; 2) steady ITCZ-like structures form only when the SST maximum is located away from the equator; and 3) peaks in convection can develop away from the maximum in SST, with a particular preference for latitudes of about 4-degrees to 12-degrees-, even in the (''cold'') hemisphere without the SST maximum. The relationship between this mechanism and earlier theories is discussed, as are implications for the coupled ocean-atmosphere system and the roles played by midlevel latent heating and SST gradients in forcing the low-level atmospheric circulation in the tropics.

Iacobellis, SF, Frouin R, Razafimpanilo H, Somerville RCJ, Piper SC.  1994.  North African savanna fires and atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 99:8321-8334.   10.1029/93jd03339   AbstractWebsite

The effect of north African savanna fires on atmospheric CO2 is investigated using a tracer transport model. The model uses winds from operational numerical weather prediction analyses and provides CO2 Concentrations as a function of space and time. After a spin-up period of several years, biomass-burning sources are added, and model experiments are run for an additional year, utilizing various estimates of CO2 sources. The various model experiments show that biomass burning in the north African savannas significantly affects CO2 concentrations in South America. The effect is more pronounced during the period from January through March, when biomass burning in South America is almost nonexistent. During this period, atmospheric CO2 concentrations in parts of South America typically may increase by 0.5 to 0.75 ppm at 970 mbar, the average pressure of the lowest model layer. These figures are above the probable uncertainty level, as model runs with biomass-burning sources estimated from independent studies using distinct data sets and techniques indicate. From May through September, when severe biomass burning occurs in South America, the effect of north African savanna fires over South America has become generally small at 970 mbar, but north of the equator it may be of the same magnitude or larger than the effect of South American fires. The CO2 concentration increase in the extreme northern and southern portions of South America, however, is mostly due to southern African fires, whose effect may be 2-3 times larger than the effect of South American fires at 970 mbar. Even in the central part of the continent, where local biomass-burning emissions are maximum, southern African fires contribute to at least 15% of the CO2 concentration increase at 970 mbar. At higher levels in the atmosphere, less CO2 emitted by north African savanna fires reaches South America, and at 100 mbar no significant amount of CO2 is transported across the Atlantic Ocean. The vertical structure of the CO2 concentration increase due to biomass burning differs substantially, depending on whether sources are local or remote. A prominent maximum Of CO2 concentration increase in the lower layers characterizes the effect of local sources, whereas a more homogenous profile of CO2 concentration increase characterizes the effect of remote sources. The results demonstrate the strong remote effects of African biomass burning which, owing to the general circulation of the atmosphere, are felt as far away as South America.

Malvagi, F, Byrne RN, Pomraning GC, Somerville RCJ.  1993.  Stochastic Radiative Transfer in a Partially Cloudy Atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 50:2146-2158.   10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<2146:srtipc>;2   AbstractWebsite

A radiation treatment of the broken-cloud problem is presented, based upon various stochastic models of the equation of radiative transfer that consider the clouds and clear sky as a two-component random mixture. These models, recently introduced in the kinetic theory literature, allow for non-Markovian statistics as well as both vertical and lateral variations in the cloudiness. Numerical results are given that compare different models of stochastic radiative transport and that point out the importance of treating the broken-cloud problem as a stochastic process. It is also shown that an integral Markovian model proposed within the atmospheric radiation community by Titov is entirely equivalent to a special case of a simple low-order differential model. The differential form of Titov's result should be easier than the integral form to implement in any general circulation model.

Somerville, R, Lauder P, Rogo R.  1993.  Change on Planet Earth. : UCSD Extension, University of California, San Diego AbstractWebsite