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Iacobellis, SF, Somerville RCJ.  1991.  Diagnostic modeling of the Indian monsoon onset: Part 1: Model description and validation. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 48:1948-1959.   10.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<1948:dmotim>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

A new type of diagnostic model is developed and applied to the study of the onset of the Indian summer monsoon. The purpose of the model is to aid in the analysis of interactions between the physical processes that affect the monsoon onset. The model is one-dimensional and consists of a single atmospheric column coupled to an ocean mixed layer. The atmospheric component of the model includes representations of all the physical processes typically included in general circulation models, except that the fields of vertical motion and horizontal advection are specified at each time step from observational data rather than predicted. With these time-dependent observational inputs, the model is then integrated numerically to produce consistent profiles of atmospheric temperature and humidity, together with energy budget components and other diagnostic quantities. The atmospheric model is based on the thermodynamic energy equation and a conservation equation for water. Parameterizations of the effects of solar and terrestrial radiation, interactive cloudiness, convection, condensation, surface fluxes, and other processes are adapted from current practice in numerical weather prediction and general circulation modeling. The model includes 15 layers in the vertical and employs a time step of 1 hour. Results are presented from four-week integrations at different locations over the Arabian Sea during the 1979 monsoon onset period. Comparison of model results with independent observational data shows that the model demonstrates considerable skill in reproducing the large increase in precipitation associated with the monsoon onset, together with significant changes in surface fluxes, cloudiness, and other variables. This realism suggests that the model is a promising tool for achieving an increased understanding of the role of interacting physical processes and for developing improved prognostic models for simulating the monsoon onset.

Iacobellis, SF, Somerville RCJ.  1991.  Diagnostic modeling of the Indian monsoon onset: Part 2: Budget and sensitivity studies. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 48:1960-1971.   10.1175/1520-0469(1991)048<1960:dmotim>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

A one-dimensional diagnostic coupled air-sea model (described in the companion paper) is applied to the analysis of the heat and moisture budgets over the Arabian Sea during the 1979 monsoon onset period. The surface energy budget, which is dominated by a balance between net shortwave radiation and latent heat during the preonset period, is significantly altered just prior to the onset itself. At that time, cloud cover sharply increases and the net shortwave flux correspondingly decreases. Subsequently, increasing surface winds produce a large increase in the latent heat flux a few days after the onset. In the free atmosphere, the heat budget displays a similarly dramatic change. At 500 mb, radiative fluxes and horizontal and vertical advection dominate the heat budget before the onset. After the onset, however, the budget is primarily a balance between deep convective heating and vertical advective cooling. The 500-mb moisture budget displays a correspondingly strong effect. Before the onset, horizontal advection of moisture is the dominant term, while after the onset, the distribution by convection of the surface moisture flux, together with moisture removal by large-scale condensation, becomes important. Sensitivity studies with the model illuminate the role of interacting physical processes. Model results show that the moistening due to horizontal advection tends to alter the radiative fluxes so as to hinder the formation and maintenance of the inversion that characterizes preonset conditions, thus favoring the formation of deep convection. This result is consistent with a suggestion by Doherty and Newell. Additionally, the interaction between the atmosphere and the upper ocean is explored in a series of sensitivity experiments. The decrease in ocean mixed-layer temperature, which follows the monsoon onset, acts to reduce the latent heat flux significantly. This effect may influence the duration and intensity of the monsoon, as well as the total precipitation, and underscores the potential importance of an accurate specification of sea surface temperature for monsoon prediction.

Iacobellis, SF, Frouin R, Somerville RCJ.  1999.  Direct climate forcing by biomass-burning aerosols: Impact of correlations between controlling variables. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 104:12031-12045.   10.1029/1999jd900001   AbstractWebsite

Estimates of the direct climate forcing by condensed organic species resulting from biomass burning have been made using bulk radiative transfer models of various complexity and the SUNRAY radiation code of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts general circulation model. Aerosols arising from the burning of tropical forests and savannas as well as those from biomass fires outside the tropics are considered. The bulk models give values ranging from -1.0 to -0.6 W m(-2), which compare with -0.7 W m(-2) using the SUNRAY code. There appears to be significant uncertainty in these values due to uncertainties in the model input parameters. The difference is only 13% between the forcing obtained by taking into account the spatial and temporal distribution of the controlling variables and the forcing obtained using global averages fur all the variables. This indicates that the effects of variations in the controlling variables tend to compensate. Yet the forcing varies by up to 34% depending on which variables are set to global averages. The SUNRAY results show that the efficiency at which the biomass-burning aerosols backscatter sunlight in cloudy conditions is 0.53, a value significantly higher than that reported for sulfate aerosols. Most of the difference is due to the relatively low latitude (hence low sun zenith angle) of the biomass-burning aerosol sources relative to the sulfate aerosol sources. The implication is that clouds should not be assumed to have a reflectivity of unity in bulk models. Comparison of SUNRAY and bulk model results points to other potential problems with bulk models. First, the use in bulk models of mean aerosol optical properties across the entire solar spectrum has significant impact on the calculated forcing and may account for 23% of the difference between SUNRAY and bulk model estimates in clear-sky conditions. Second, neglecting multiple scattering in bulk models introduces significant differences in the clear-sky forcing at high sun zenith angles.

Shell, KM, Somerville RCJ.  2007.  Direct radiative effect of mineral dust and volcanic aerosols in a simple aerosol climate model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 112   10.1029/2006jd007197   AbstractWebsite

Airborne mineral dust can influence the climate by altering the radiative properties of the atmosphere, but the magnitude of the effect is uncertain. An idealized global model is developed to study the dust-climate system. The model determines the dust longwave and shortwave direct radiative forcing, as well as the resulting temperature changes, based on the specified dust distribution, height, and optical properties. Comparisons with observations and general circulation results indicate that the model produces realistic results for the present-day dust distribution as well as for volcanic aerosols. Although the model includes many simplifications, it can still provide insight into dust-climate system behavior. Recent observations suggest that dust may absorb less solar radiation than previously thought. Experiments with the model suggest that previous studies which used more absorbing dust may be underestimating the effect of dust. Increasing the solar single scattering albedo value from 0.85 to 0.97, corresponding to recent measurements, more than doubles the modeled global average top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) shortwave direct forcing for the present-day dust distribution, while the surface shortwave forcing is halved. The corresponding temperature decreases are larger for the larger single scattering albedo, and the latent and sensible heat fluxes decreases are smaller. The dust forcing and climate response are approximately linear with respect to optical depth. However, the relationship depends on the relative magnitudes of shortwave versus longwave TOA forcing. Thus the net TOA forcing alone does not determine the steady state climate response.

Lipps, FB, Somervil.Rc.  1971.  Dynamics of Variable Wavelength in Finite-Amplitude Benard Convection. Physics of Fluids. 14:759-&.   10.1063/1.1693502   AbstractWebsite

The finite‐amplitude Bénard convection problem is investigated by numerical integration of the rigid‐boundary Boussinesq equations in two and three space dimensions. Solutions are obtained for a wide range of Prandtl numbers and at moderate Rayleigh numbers for which the flow is observed to approach a two‐dimensional steady state. Detailed quantitative comparisons are made with experimental data in an effort to explain the observed increase of cell wavelength with Rayleigh number and to determine the effect of changing cell size on the heat transport. The three‐dimensional model shows good evidence of being able to yield realistic values of the cell wavelength, while the two‐dimensional models yield wavelengths that are much too short. These results strongly suggest that the increase in wavelength is determined by a three‐dimensional transient process, while the convection tends to a two‐dimensional steady state. The increase in cell size is shown to be responsible for a substantial part of the discrepancy between previous theoretical‐numerical and experimental determinations of Nusselt number. It also provides a plausible explanation for the experimentally observed dependence of heat transport on Prandtl number.

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Stone, PH, Quirk WJ, Somervil.Rc.  1974.  Effect of Small-Scale Vertical Mixing of Horizontal Momentum in a General Circulation Model. Monthly Weather Review. 102:765-771.   10.1175/1520-0493(1974)102<0765:teossv>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

Several experiments are described in which the sub-grid-scale vertical eddy viscosity in the GISS global general circulation model was varied. The results show that large viscosities suppress large-scale eddies in middle and high latitudes, but enhance the circulation in the tropical Hadley cell and increase the extent of the tropical easterlies. Comparison with observations shows that the GISS model requires eddy viscosities 1 m2/s or less to give realistic results for middle and high latitudes, and eddy viscosities 100 m2/s to give realistic results for low latitudes. A plausible mechanism for the implied increase in small-scale mixing in low latitudes is cumulus convection.

Lee, WH, Somerville RCJ.  1996.  Effects of alternative cloud radiation parameterizations in a general circulation model. Annales Geophysicae-Atmospheres Hydrospheres and Space Sciences. 14:107-114.   10.1007/s00585-996-0107-6   AbstractWebsite

Using the National Center for Atmospheric Research (MCAR) general circulation model (CCM2), a suite of alternative cloud radiation parameterizations has been tested. Our methodology relies on perpetual July integrations driven by +/-2 K sea surface temperature forcing. The tested parameterizations include relative humidity based clouds and versions of schemes involving a prognostic cloud water budget. We are especially interested in testing the effect of cloud optical thickness feedbacks on global climate sensitivity. All schemes exhibit negative cloud radiation feedbacks, i.e., cloud moderates the global warming. However, these negative net cloud radiation feedbacks consist of quite different shortwave and longwave components between a scheme with interactive cloud radiative properties and several schemes with specified cloud water paths. An increase in cloud water content in the warmer climate leads to optically thicker middle- and low-level clouds and in turn negative shortwave feedbacks for the interactive radiative scheme, while a decrease in cloud amount leads to a positive shortwave feedback for the other schemes. For the longwave feedbacks, a decrease in high effective cloudiness for the schemes without interactive radiative properties leads to a negative feedback, while no distinct changes in effective high cloudiness and the resulting feedback are exhibited for the scheme with interactive radiative properties. The resulting magnitude of negative net cloud radiation feed-back is largest for the scheme with interactive radiative properties. Even though the simulated values of cloud radiative forcing for the present climate using this method differ most from the observational data, the approach shows great promise for the future.

Somerville, RCJ, Iacobellis S, Lee WH.  1996.  Effects of cloud-radiation schemes on climate model results. World Resource Review. 8:321-333. Abstract

A current dilemma of climate modeling is that model results are strongly sensitive to the treatment of certain poorly-understood physical processes, especially cloud-radiation interactions. Thus, different models with alternative plausible parameterizations often give widely varying results. Yet, we typically have had little basis for estimating which parameterization is more realistic. Of the many physical processes involved in climate simulations, feedbacks due to cloud-radiation interactions are thought to be the largest single source of uncertainty. In fact, most of the global differences in results between leading climate models, as measured by their sensitivity to greenhouse gases, can be traced to different model treatments of cloud-radiation interactions.Using a modern atmospheric general circulation model (the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model: CCM2), we have investigated the effects on climate sensitivity of several different cloud-radiation parameterizations. At the same time, we have validated these parameterizations directly with observations from field experiments. In addition to the original cloud-radiation scheme of CCM2, we tested four parameterizations incorporating prognostic cloud water: one version with prescribed cloud radiative properties and three other versions with interactive cloud radiative properties. Comparisons with measurements suggest that schemes with explicit cloud water budgets and interactive radiative properties are potentially capable of matching observational data closely.

Pritchard, MS, Somerville RCJ.  2009.  Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the diurnal cycle of precipitation in a multi-scale climate model. Geophysical Research Letters. 36   10.1029/2008gl036964   AbstractWebsite

Long-term variability in the hydrologic cycle is poorly simulated by current generation global climate models (GCMs), partly due to known climatological biases at shorter timescales. We demonstrate that a prototype Multi-scale Modeling Framework (MMF) provides a superior representation of the spatial and temporal structure of precipitation at diurnal timescales than a GCM. Results from empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition of the boreal summer climatological composite diurnal cycle of precipitation in an MMF are compared to a GCM and satellite data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission. The eigenspectrum, principal component time series, and the spatial structure of leading EOFs in an eigenmode decomposition of the MMF composite day are a much better match to observations than the GCM. Regional deficiencies in the MMF diurnal cycle are manifest as localized anomalies in the spatial structures of the first two leading EOFs. Citation: Pritchard, M. S., and R. C. J. Somerville (2009), Empirical orthogonal function analysis of the diurnal cycle of precipitation in a multi-scale climate model, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L05812, doi: 10.1029/2008GL036964.

Baker, WE, Kung EC, Somerville RCJ.  1978.  An Energetics Analysis of Forecast Experiments with NCAR General Circulation Model. Monthly Weather Review. 106:311-323.   10.1175/1520-0493(1978)106<0311:aeaofe>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

The energetics in numerical weather forecast experiments with the NCAR general circulation model have been analyzed. The 6-layer, 5-degree, second-generation global model was used to make two 10-day forecasts with the same initial conditions. The two experiments differed primarily in the methods of convective parameterization.Hemispheric integrals of the model energies and energy transformations are presented in the context of their approach to a quasi-equilibrium climatology. Spectral and spatial analyses of the eddy energies and transformations provide further insight into the model response to the initial conditions. After the initial adjustment, the eddy kinetic energy appears to lag the conversion from eddy available potential energy to eddy kinetic energy by at least 48 h in the long waves (wavenumbers 1–4) and by approximately 24 h in the baroclinic waves (wavenumbers 5–7), whereas little or no time lag is apparent in the short waves (wavenumbers 8–12).The sensitivity of the forecast energetics to two different convective parameterizations is also examined. There is little appreciable difference between the two experiments in the eddy kinetic energy integrals during the first 36 h of the forecast, but temporal patterns of the eddy transformations are distinctly different after 12 h.

Baker, WE, Kung EC, Somerville RCJ.  1977.  Energetics Diagnosis of the NCAR General Circulation Model. Monthly Weather Review. 105:1384-1401.   10.1175/1520-0493(1977)105<1384:edotng>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

A comprehensive energetics analysis has been performed on the NCAR general circulation model. The analysis involves January and July simulation experiments with the 6-layer, 5-degree, second-generation model with two different convective schemes. Spectral analysis of the energy transformations in the wave-number domain was performed separately on a global and hemispheric basis as well as for the tropics and mid-latitudes. Latitudinal distributions of energy variables were also examined.A qualitative agreement with observational estimates is generally recognized in the transformations of eddy energies. Quantitatively, however, the eddy energies, conversions and energy transfer between wavenumbers are weaker than observational estimates. It is noteworthy that substantial differences exist in the energetics of the two versions of the model with different convective schemes.

Iacobellis, SF, Somerville RCJ.  2006.  Evaluating parameterizations of the autoconversion process using a single-column model and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 111   10.1029/2005jd006296   AbstractWebsite

A single-column model is used to evaluate the performance of two types of autoconversion parameterizations. The model results are compared to data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern U. S. Great Plains site. The model is run over a period covering 2 years (2000-2001), and the results are analyzed for time periods varying from hourly to seasonal. During a relatively short 27-hour period during March 2000 characterized primarily by shallow frontal clouds, modeled values of cloud liquid water were better simulated using a Manton-Cotton-type autoconversion parameterization. However, over longer timescales representing a multitude of different cloud types and meteorological conditions, a Sundqvist-type parameterization produced better results. Analysis of the model results indicates that the Manton-Cotton-type parameterization does better during periods when shallow clouds are present without any overlying clouds, while the Sundqvist-type parameterization is preferred during periods when high and low clouds coexist. A possible explanation is that precipitation from high clouds may not be represented well by the SCM, thus affecting the precipitation formation rates in any lower clouds. Sensitivity tests using the Manton-Cotton parameterization indicate that the autoconversion rate is sensitive to the specification of the cloud droplet number concentration (N-c). The single-column model, as well as many general circulation models, specify N-c as a constant value. However, limited in situ measurements suggest that N-c varies significantly in time. The mean modeled top-of-atmosphere cloud radiative forcing during the 2-year period 2000-2001 differed by 3 W m(-2) as the cloud droplet concentration was varied between minimum and maximum values suggested by the in situ measurements. These results imply that model-produced hydrological cycle and cloud-radiation interactions could be better modeled using an accurate time-dependent measure of the cloud droplet concentration.

Lane, DE, Somerville RCJ, Iacobellis S.  2001.  Evaluation of a Stochastic Radiative Transfer Model Using Ground-based Measurements. IRS 2000: Current Problems in Atmospheric Radiation : Proceedings of the International Radiation Symposium, St. Petersberg, Russia, 24-29 July 2000. ( Smith WL, Timofeyev YM, Eds.).:245-248.: A Deepak Publishing Abstract
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Druyan, LM, Somerville RCJ, Quirk WJ.  1975.  Extended-Range Forecasts with GISS Model of Global Atmosphere. Monthly Weather Review. 103:779-795.   10.1175/1520-0493(1975)103<0779:erfwtg>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite
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Somerville, R.  1996.  The Forgiving Air : Understanding Environmental Change. :xiv,195p.., Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press Abstract
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Somerville, R.  2008.  The Forgiving Air : Understanding Environmental Change, Second Edition. :202p.., Boston, Mass.: American Meteorological Society Abstract
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Xu, L, Russell LM, Somerville RCJ, Quinn PK.  2013.  Frost flower aerosol effects on Arctic wintertime longwave cloud radiative forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 118:13282-13291.   10.1002/2013jd020554   Abstract

Frost flowers are clusters of highly saline ice crystals growing on newly formed sea ice or frozen lakes. Based on observations of particles derived from frost flowers in the Arctic, we formulate an observation-based parameterization of salt aerosol source function from frost flowers. The particle flux from frost flowers in winter has the order of 10(6)m(-2)s(-1) at the wind speed of 10ms(-1), but the source flux is highly localized to new sea ice regions and strongly dependent on wind speed. We have implemented this parameterization into the regional Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry initialized for two wintertime scenarios. The addition of sea salt aerosol emissions from frost flowers increases averaged sea salt aerosol mass and number concentration and subsequent cloud droplet number. This change of cloud droplet number concentration increases downward longwave cloud radiative forcing through enhanced cloud optical depth and emissivity. The magnitude of this forcing of sea salt aerosols from frost flowers on clouds and radiation, however, contributes negligibly to surface warming in Barrow, Alaska, in the wintertime scenarios studied here.

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Shell, KM, Somerville RCJ.  2005.  A generalized energy balance climate model with parameterized dynamics and diabatic heating. Journal of Climate. 18:1753-1772.   10.1175/jcli3373.1   AbstractWebsite

Energy balance models have proven useful in understanding mechanisms and feedbacks in the climate system. An original global energy balance model is presented here. The model is solved numerically for equilibrium climate states defined by zonal average temperature as a function of latitude for both a surface and an atmospheric layer. The effects of radiative, latent, and sensible heating are parameterized. The model includes a variable lapse rate and parameterizations of the major dynamical mechanisms responsible for meridional heat transport: the Hadley cell, midlatitude baroclinic eddies, and ocean circulation. The model reproduces both the mean variation of temperature with latitude and the global average heat budget within the uncertainty of observations. The utility of the model is demonstrated through examination of various climate feedbacks. One important feedback is the effect of the lapse rate on climate. When the planet warms as a result of an increase in the solar constant, the lapse rate acts as a negative feedback, effectively enhancing the longwave emission efficiency of the atmosphere. The lapse rate is also responsible for an increase in global average temperature when the meridional heat transport effectiveness is increased. The water vapor feedback enhances temperature changes, while the latent and sensible heating feedback reduces surface temperature changes.

Somervil.Rc, Stone PH, Halem M, Hansen JE, Hogan JS, Druyan LM, Russell G, Lacis AA, Quirk WJ, Tenenbau.J.  1974.  GISS Model of Global Atmosphere. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 31:84-117.   10.1175/1520-0469(1974)031<0084:tgmotg>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

A model description and numerical results are presented for a global atmospheric circulation model developed at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS). The model version described is a 9-level primitive-equation model in sigma coordinates. It includes a realistic distribution of continents, oceans and topography. Detailed calculations of energy transfer by solar and terrestrial radiation make use of cloud and water vapor fields calculated by the model. The model hydrologic cycle includes two precipitation mechanisms: large-scale supersaturation and a parameterization of subgrid-scale cumulus convection.Results are presented both from a comparison of the 13th to the 43rd days (January) of one integration with climatological statistics, and from five short-range forecasting experiments. In the extended integration, the near-equilibrium January-mean model atmosphere exhibits an energy cycle in good agreement with observational estimates, together with generally realistic zonal mean fields of winds, temperature, humidity, transports, diabatic heating, evaporation, precipitation, and cloud cover. In the five forecasting experiments, after 48 hr, the average rms error in temperature is 3.9K, and the average rms error in 500-mb height is 62 m. The model is successful in simulating the 2-day evolution of the major features of the observed sea level pressure and 500-mb height fields in a region surrounding North America.

Jouzel, J, Somerville RCJ.  2008.  The global consensus and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Facing climate change together. ( Gautier C, Fellous JL, Eds.).:12-29., Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press Abstract

"This volume brings together scientists from the US and Europe to review the state-of-the-art in climate change science; all of them have extensive experience with climate research and international collaboration. scientific jargon has been minimized for readers from different backgrounds.""This book is written for scientists and students in a wide range of fields, such as atmospheric science, physics, chemistry, biology, geography, geology, and socioeconomics, who are not necessarily specialists in climatology, but are seeking an accessible and broad review of climate change issues."--BOOK JACKET.

Chertock, B, Frouin R, Somerville RCJ.  1991.  Global Monitoring of Net Solar Irradiance at the Ocean Surface - Climatological Variability and the 1982-1983 Elnino. Journal of Climate. 4:639-650.   10.1175/1520-0442(1991)004<0639:gmonsi>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

A new method has been used to generate the first satellite-based long-term climatology of surface solar irradiance over the world oceans. These monthly mean data cover the period November 1978 through October 1985 on a global, 9-degrees latitude-longitude spatial grid. The large-scale variability of surface solar irradiance is assessed over the world oceans for the entire (84-month) record. The results demonstrate the ability of the method to reveal large-scale seasonal and interannual phenomena. The reduction in surface solar irradiance due to clouds is evaluated globally both on monthly and long-term climatological scales. Monthly cloud forcing anomalies are found to display eastward propagation over the course of the 1982-1983 El Nino event. The mean January climatology is found to be consistent with the climatology obtained from a general circulation model run in perpetual January mode. This study marks the first large-scale observation-based examination of cloud solar forcing at the ocean surface. In addition, empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is employed to investigate modes of seasonal and nonseasonal variability. Nonseasonal EOF modes of surface solar irradiance are related to nonseasonal EOF modes of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR). The dominant modes during the 1982-1983 El Nino are associated with eastward propagation in both the shortwave and longwave fields. These dominant nonseasonal EOF modes of surface solar irradiance are found to display features and amplitude variations that are identical to those of the corresponding nonseasonal EOF modes of OLR. The association of these modes with EL Nino is quantified using the correlation of the mode amplitudes with the Southern Oscillation index (SOI). In each case modes 1 and 2 are positively correlated with the SOI, and mode 1 has a strong correlation of 0.75 for the shortwave and 0.76 for the longwave field. Finally, a study of the regionally averaged behavior of surface solar irradiance and sea surface temperature (SST) in a section of the tropical Pacific (9-degrees-N-9-degrees-S, 117-degrees-144-degrees-W) during this same period indicates that fluctuations of surface solar irradiance in the tropical Pacific are sometimes a regional response to underlying changes in SST (and associated changes in cloudiness), rather than a driving mechanism responsible for variations in SST.

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Le Treut, H, Somerville RCJ, Cubasch U, Ding Y, Mauritzen C, Mokssit A, Peterson T, Prather M.  2007.  Historical Overview of Climate Change. Climate change 2007 : the physical science basis : contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ( Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt K, Tignor M, Miller H, Eds.)., Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press Abstract
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Somerville, RCJ.  2011.  How much should the public know about climate science? Climatic Change. 104:509-514.   10.1007/s10584-010-9938-y   AbstractWebsite
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Somerville, RCJ.  2008.  If I were president: A climate change speech. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 89:1180-1182. Abstract
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