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Ander, ME, Zumberge MA, Lautzenhiser T, Parker RL, Aiken CLV, Gorman MR, Nieto MM, Cooper APR, Ferguson JF, Fisher E, McMechan GA, Sasagawa G, Stevenson JM, Backus G, Chave AD, Greer J, Hammer P, Hansen BL, Hildebrand JA, Kelty JR, Sidles C, Wirtz J.  1989.  Test of Newton's inverse-square law in the Greenland Ice Cap. Physical Review Letters. 62:985-988.   10.1103/PhysRevLett.62.985   AbstractWebsite

An Airy-type geophysical experiment was conducted in a 2-km-deep hole in the Greenland ice cap at depths between 213 and 1673 m to test for possible violations of Newton’s inverse-square law. An anomalous gravity gradient was observed. We cannot unambiguously attribute it to a breakdown of Newtonian gravity because we have shown that it might be due to unexpected geological features in the rock below the ice.

Ander, ME, Zumberge MA, Lautzenhiser T, Parker RL, Aiken CLV, Gorman MR, Nieto MM, Ferguson JF, McMechan GA.  1989.  A new field experiment in the Greenland Ice Cap to test Newton's inverse square law. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 571:672-680.   10.1111/j.1749-6632.1989.tb50553.x   AbstractWebsite

Recent experimental evidence suggests that Newton’s law of gravity may not be precise. There are modern theories of quantum gravity that, in their attempts to unify gravity with other forces of nature, predict non-Newtonian gravitational forces that could have ranges on the order of 102-105 m. If they exist, these forces would be apparent as violations of Newton’s inverse square law. A geophysical experiment was carried out to search for possible finite-range, non-Newtonian gravity over depths of 213-1673 m in the glacial ice of the Greenland ice cap. The principal reason for this choice of experimental site is that a hole drilled through the ice cap already existed and the uniformity of the ice eliminates one of the major sources of uncertainty arising in the first of earlier namely, the heterogeneity of the rocks through which a mine shaft or drill hole passes. Our observations were made in the summer of 1987 at Dye 3, Greenland, in the 2033-m-deep borehole, which reached the basement rock.