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Nevison, CD, Lueker TJ, Weiss RF.  2004.  Quantifying the nitrous oxide source from coastal upwelling. Global Biogeochemical Cycles. 18   10.1029/2003gb002110   AbstractWebsite

A continuous record of atmospheric N2O measured from a tower in northern California captures strong pulses of N2O released by coastal upwelling events. The atmospheric record offers a unique, observation-based method for quantifying the coastal N2O source. A coastal upwelling model is developed and compared to the constraints imposed by the atmospheric record in the Pacific Northwest coastal region. The upwelling model is based on Ekman theory and driven by high-resolution wind and SST data and by relationships between subsurface N2O and temperature. A simplified version of the upwelling model is extended to the world's major eastern boundary regions to estimate a total coastal upwelling source of similar to0.2 +/- >70% Tg N2O-N/yr. This flux represents similar to5% of the total ocean source, estimated here at similar to4 Tg N2O-N/yr using traditional gas-transfer methods, and is probably largely neglected in current N2O budgets.

Weiss, RF, Prinn RG.  2011.  Quantifying greenhouse-gas emissions from atmospheric measurements: a critical reality check for climate legislation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society a-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences. 369:1925-1942.   10.1098/rsta.2011.0006   AbstractWebsite

Emissions reduction legislation relies upon 'bottom-up' accounting of industrial and biogenic greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions at their sources. Yet, even for relatively well-constrained industrial GHGs, global emissions based on 'top-down' methods that use atmospheric measurements often agree poorly with the reported bottom-up emissions. For emissions reduction legislation to be effective, it is essential that these discrepancies be resolved. Because emissions are regulated nationally or regionally, not globally, top-down estimates must also be determined at these scales. High-frequency atmospheric GHG measurements at well-chosen station locations record 'pollution events' above the background values that result from regional emissions. By combining such measurements with inverse methods and atmospheric transport and chemistry models, it is possible to map and quantify regional emissions. Even with the sparse current network of measurement stations and current inverse-modelling techniques, it is possible to rival the accuracies of regional 'bottom-up' emission estimates for some GHGs. But meeting the verification goals of emissions reduction legislation will require major increases in the density and types of atmospheric observations, as well as expanded inverse-modelling capabilities. The cost of this effort would be minor when compared with current investments in carbon-equivalent trading, and would reduce the volatility of that market and increase investment in emissions reduction.

Kim, J, Fraser PJ, Li S, Muhle J, Ganesan AL, Krummel PB, Steele LP, Park S, Kim SK, Park MK, Arnold T, Harth CM, Salameh PK, Prinn RG, Weiss RF, Kim KR.  2014.  Quantifying aluminum and semiconductor industry perfluorocarbon emissions from atmospheric measurements. Geophysical Research Letters. 41:4787-4794.   10.1002/2014gl059783   AbstractWebsite

The potent anthropogenic perfluorocarbon greenhouse gases tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and hexafluoroethane (C2F6) are emitted to the atmosphere mainly by the aluminum and semiconductor industries. Global emissions of these perfluorocarbons (PFCs) calculated from atmospheric measurements are significantly greater than expected from reported national and industry-based emission inventories. In this study, in situ measurements of the two PFCs in the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment network are used to show that their emission ratio varies according to the relative regional presence of these two industries, providing an industry-specific emission "signature" to apportion the observed emissions. Our results suggest that underestimated emissions from the global semiconductor industry during 1990-2010, as well as from China's aluminum industry after 2002, account for the observed differences between emissions based on atmospheric measurements and on inventories. These differences are significant despite the large uncertainties in emissions based on the methodologies used by these industries.