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Verhulst, KR, Karion A, Kim J, Salameh PK, Keeling RF, Newman S, Miller J, Sloop C, Pongetti T, Rao P, Wong C, Hopkins FM, Yadav V, Weiss RF, Duren RM, Miller CE.  2017.  Carbon dioxide and methane measurements from the Los Angeles Megacity Carbon Project - Part 1: calibration, urban enhancements, and uncertainty estimates. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 17:8313-8341.   10.5194/acp-17-8313-2017   AbstractWebsite

We report continuous surface observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from the Los Angeles (LA) Megacity Carbon Project during 2015. We devised a calibration strategy, methods for selection of background air masses, calculation of urban enhancements, and a detailed algorithm for estimating uncertainties in urban-scale CO2 and CH4 measurements. These methods are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from the LA megacity and other complex urban environments globally. We estimate background mole fractions entering LA using observations from four "extra-urban" sites including two "marine" sites located south of LA in La Jolla (LJO) and offshore on San Clemente Island (SCI), one "continental" site located in Victorville (VIC), in the high desert northeast of LA, and one "continental/mid-troposphere" site located on Mount Wilson (MWO) in the San Gabriel Mountains. We find that a local marine background can be established to within similar to 1 ppm CO2 and similar to 10 ppb CH4 using these local measurement sites. Overall, atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels are highly variable across Los Angeles. "Urban" and "suburban" sites show moderate to large CO2 and CH4 enhancements relative to a marine background estimate. The USC (University of Southern California) site near downtown LA exhibits median hourly enhancements of similar to 20 ppm CO2 and similar to 150 ppb CH4 during 2015 as well as similar to 15 ppm CO2 and similar to 80 ppb CH4 during mid-afternoon hours (12:00-16:00 LT, local time), which is the typical period of focus for flux inversions. The estimated measurement uncertainty is typically better than 0.1 ppm CO2 and 1 ppb CH4 based on the repeated standard gas measurements from the LA sites during the last 2 years, similar to Andrews et al. (2014). The largest component of the measurement uncertainty is due to the single-point calibration method; however, the uncertainty in the background mole fraction is much larger than the measurement uncertainty. The background uncertainty for the marine background estimate is similar to 10 and similar to 15% of the median mid-afternoon enhancement near downtown LA for CO2 and CH4, respectively. Overall, analytical and background uncertainties are small relative to the local CO2 and CH4 enhancements; however, our results suggest that reducing the uncertainty to less than 5% of the median mid-afternoon enhancement will require detailed assessment of the impact of meteorology on background conditions.

Weiss, RF.  1974.  Carbon dioxide in water and seawater: the solubility of a non-ideal gas. Marine Chemistry. 2:203-215.   10.1016/0304-4203(74)90015-2   Abstract

New measurements of the solubility of carbon dioxide in water and seawater confirm the accuracy of the measurements of Murray and Riley, as opposed to those of Li and Tsui. Corrections for non-ideal behavior in the gas phase and for dissociation in distilled water are required to calculate solubility coefficients from these sets of data. Equations for the solubilities of real gases are presented and discussed. Solubility coefficients for carbon dioxide in water and seawater are calculated for the data of Murray and Riley, and are fitted to equations in temperature and salinity of the form used previously to fit the solubilities of other gases.

Bill, M, Rhew RC, Weiss RF, Goldstein AH.  2002.  Carbon isotope ratios of methyl bromide and methyl chloride emitted from a coastal salt marsh. Geophysical Research Letters. 29   10.1029/2001gl012946   AbstractWebsite

[1] Methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) play important roles in stratospheric ozone depletion, but their atmospheric budgets have large uncertainties. The analysis of stable isotope composition of methyl halides may provide useful independent information for further constraining their budgets. Here we report the first measurements of CH3Br and CH3Cl stable carbon isotope ratios emitted from a biogenic source under in situ conditions. CH3Br and CH3Cl emissions from the salt marsh plant Batis maritima showed a strong diurnal variation in delta(13)C, from -65parts per thousand during the daytime to --12parts per thousand at night. The minimum delta(13)C values were observed at midday, coinciding with the time of greatest emissions and ambient temperature. At night, when the emissions were much smaller, the stable carbon isotopic ratios of CH3Br and CH3Cl became enriched in C-13. The daily mean delta(13)C of CH3Br and CH3Cl emissions, weighted by emission rate, were -43parts per thousand and -62parts per thousand respectively.

Takahashi, T, Weiss RF, Culberson CH, Edmond JM, Hammond DE, Wong CS, Li Y-hui, Bainbridge AE.  1970.  A carbonate chemistry profile at the 1969 GEOSECS intercalibration station in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research. 75:7648-7666., Washington, DC, United States (USA): American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC   10.1029/JC075i036p07648   AbstractWebsite

To compare and evaluate measurements made by the various laboratories participating in the Geochemical Ocean Section Study (Geosecs), four carbonate chemistry parameters, pH, pCO2, alkalinity, and total dissolved CO2, as well as temperature and salinity were measured for samples collected at the Geosecs intercalibration station, 28°20′±07′N and 121°41′±02′W. The methods for measurement include the glass-calomel electrode pair for pH, the pH and the potentiometric acid titration methods for alkalinity, gas chromatographic, infrared and potentiometric acid titration method for total CO2, and the gas equilibrator-infrared method for pCO2. The alkalinity values measured by the pH method agree with the values measured by the potentiometric acid titration method within 1%, and the total CO2 values measured by the chromatographic method agree with the values measured by the potentiometric acid titration method within 2%. The observed 3 to 5% difference between the total CO2 values measured by the chromatographic and infrared methods is attributed to the biological alteration of the unpoisoned samples used for the infrared methods. When two of the four measured carbonate parameters were used to calculate the remaining two parameters, the calculated values are found to differ systematically from the measured values for those two parameters. Such a discrepancy can be eliminated if a 30% error in the second apparent dissociation constant for carbonic acid (K2′) is assumed.

Rhoderick, G, Guenther F, Duewer D, Lee J, Kim JS, Hall B, Weiss R, Harth C, Reimann S, Vollmer M.  2014.  CCQM-P151 final report pilot study CCQM P151 halocarbons in dry whole air. Metrologia. 51 AbstractWebsite

The growing awareness of climate change/global warming and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion will require future measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track and control the emissions of these species globally in the atmosphere, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. This report describes the results of a pilot study between National Metrology Institutes and atmospheric research laboratories for several of the more important halocarbons at atmospheric concentration levels. The comparison includes the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC 12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC 11), and 1,1,2- trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC 113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC 22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC 142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane (HFC 134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this key comparison is to compare the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels.

Forster, P, Ramaswamy V, Artaxo P, Berntsen J, Betts R, Fahey DW, Haywood J, Lean J, Lowe DC, Myhre G, Nganga J, Prinn R, Raga G, Schulz M, van Dorland R, Bodeker G, Boucher O, Collins WD, Conway TJ, Dlugokencky E, Elkins JW, Etheridge D, Foukal P, Fraser P, Geller M, Joos F, Keeling CD, Keeling R, Kinne S, Lassey K, Lohmann U, Manning AC, Montzka SA, Oram D, O'Shaughnessy K, Piper SC, Plattner GK, Ponater M, Ramankutty N, Reid GC, Rind D, Rosenlof KH, Sausen R, Schwarzkopf D, Solanki SK, Stenchikov G, Stuber N, Takemura T, Textor C, Wang R, Weiss R, Whorf T.  2007.  Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. Climate Change 2007 : The Physical Science Basis : Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. ( Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt K, Tignor M, Miller H, Eds.).:129-234., Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press Abstract

For policymakers -- Technical summary -- Historical overview of climate change science -- Changes in atmospheric constituents and radiative forcing -- Observations: atmospheric surface and climate change -- Observations: changes in snow, ice, and frozen ground -- Observations: ocean climate change and sea level -- Paleoclimate -- Coupling between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry -- Climate models and their evaluation -- Understanding and attributing climate change -- Global climate projections -- Regional climate projections -- Annex I: Glossary -- Annex II: Contributors to the IPCC WGI Fourth Assessment Report -- Annex III: Reviewers of the IPCC WGI Fourth Assessment Report -- Annex IV: Acronyms.

Simmonds, PG, Rigby M, McCulloch A, O'Doherty S, Young D, Mühle J, Krummel PB, Steele P, Fraser PJ, Manning AJ, Weiss RF, Salameh PK, Harth CM, Wang RHJ, Prinn RG.  2017.  Changing trends and emissions of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and their hydrofluorocarbon (HFCs) replacements. Atmos. Chem. Phys.. 17:4641-4655.: Copernicus Publications   10.5194/acp-17-4641-2017   Abstract

High-frequency, in situ global observations of HCFC-22 (CHClF2), HCFC-141b (CH3CCl2F), HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) and HCFC-124 (CHClFCF3) and their main HFC replacements, HFC-134a (CH2FCF3), HFC-125 (CHF2CF3), HFC-143a (CH3CF3) and HFC-32 (CH2F2), have been used to determine their changing global growth rates and emissions in response to the Montreal Protocol and its recent amendments. Global mean mole fractions of HCFC-22, -141b, and -142b have increased throughout the observation period, reaching 234, 24.3 and 22.4 pmol mol−1, respectively, in 2015. HCFC-124 reached a maximum global mean mole fraction of 1.48 pmol mol−1 in 2007 and has since declined by 23 % to 1.14 pmol mol−1 in 2015. The HFCs all show increasing global mean mole fractions. In 2015 the global mean mole fractions (pmol mol−1) were 83.3 (HFC-134a), 18.4 (HFC-125), 17.7 (HFC-143a) and 10.5 (HFC-32).The 2007 adjustment to the Montreal Protocol required the accelerated phase-out of emissive uses of HCFCs with global production and consumption capped in 2013 to mitigate their environmental impact as both ozone-depleting substances and important greenhouse gases. We find that this change has coincided with a stabilisation, or moderate reduction, in global emissions of the four HCFCs with aggregated global emissions in 2015 of 449 ± 75 Gg yr−1, in CO2 equivalent units (CO2 eq.) 0.76 ± 0.1 Gt yr−1, compared with 483 ± 70 Gg yr−1 (0.82 ± 0.1 Gt yr−1 CO2 eq.) in 2010 (uncertainties are 1σ throughout this paper). About 79 % of the total HCFC atmospheric burden in 2015 is HCFC-22, where global emissions appear to have been relatively similar since 2011, in spite of the 2013 cap on emissive uses. We attribute this to a probable increase in production and consumption of HCFC-22 in Montreal Protocol Article 5 (developing) countries and the continuing release of HCFC-22 from the large banks which dominate HCFC global emissions. Conversely, the four HFCs all show increasing mole fraction growth rates with aggregated global HFC emissions of 327 ± 70 Gg yr−1 (0.65 ± 0.12 Gt yr−1 CO2 eq.) in 2015 compared to 240 ± 50 Gg yr−1 (0.47 ± 0.08 Gt yr−1 CO2 eq.) in 2010. We also note that emissions of HFC-125 and HFC-32 appear to have increased more rapidly averaged over the 5-year period 2011–2015, compared to 2006–2010. As noted by Lunt et al. (2015) this may reflect a change to refrigerant blends, such as R-410A, which contain HFC-32 and -125 as a 50 : 50 blend.

Ganesan, AL, Rigby M, Zammit-Mangion A, Manning AJ, Prinn RG, Fraser PJ, Harth CM, Kim KR, Krummel PB, Li S, Mühle J, O'Doherty SJ, Park S, Salameh PK, Steele LP, Weiss RF.  2014.  Characterization of uncertainties in atmospheric trace gas inversions using hierarchical Bayesian methods. Atmos. Chem. Phys.. 14:3855-3864.: Copernicus Publications   10.5194/acp-14-3855-2014   AbstractWebsite
Li, S, Park S, Lee JY, Ha KJ, Park MK, Jo CO, Oh H, Mühle J, Kim KR, Montzka SA, O’Doherty S, Krummel PB, Atlas E, Miller BR, Moore F, Weiss RF, Wofsy SC.  2018.  Chemical evidence of inter-hemispheric air mass intrusion into the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. Scientific Reports. 8:4669.   10.1038/s41598-018-22266-0   AbstractWebsite

The East Asian Summer Monsoon driven by temperature and moisture gradients between the Asian continent and the Pacific Ocean, leads to approximately 50% of the annual rainfall in the region across 20–40°N. Due to its increasing scientific and social importance, there have been several previous studies on identification of moisture sources for summer monsoon rainfall over East Asia mainly using Lagrangian or Eulerian atmospheric water vapor models. The major source regions for EASM previously proposed include the North Indian Ocean, South China Sea and North western Pacific. Based on high-precision and high-frequency 6-year measurement records of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), here we report a direct evidence of rapid intrusion of warm and moist tropical air mass from the Southern Hemisphere (SH) reaching within a couple of days up to 33°N into East Asia. We further suggest that the combination of direct chemical tracer record and a back-trajectory model with physical meteorological variables helps pave the way to identify moisture sources for monsoon rainfall. A case study for Gosan station (33.25°N, 126.19°E) indicates that the meridional transport of precipitable water from the SH accompanying the southerly/southwesterly flow contributes most significantly to its summer rainfall.

Von Damm, KL, Edmond JM, Grant B, Measures CI.  1985.  Chemistry of submarine hydrothermal solutions at 21°N, East Pacific Rise. Geochimica Et Cosmochimica Acta. 49:2197-2220.   10.1016/0016-7037(85)90222-4   AbstractWebsite

The three hydrothermal fields at 21°N latitude, East Pacific Rise, were resampled and an additional one was discovered. Maximum fluid temperatures observed were within a few degrees of 350°C and these waters had concentrations of Mg and sulfate indistinguishable from zero. One field, NGS, which had active 350°C springs in 1979, was inactive when first located in 1981. However, when a chimney was broken open during sampling, water issued at 273°C and continued to flow for at least five days. The chemical composition strongly suggests that these waters cooled conductively from 350°C in the sealed conduit.The major ion data are consistent with the estimates based on extrapolation of the original measurements made on the hot springs from the Galapagos Spreading Center (Edmondet al., 1979a). The fluids have a pH of 3.5 and the sulfide-forming element concentrations show significant inter-field variations. Fe levels range from 0.8 to 2.4 mmoles/kg; the ratio Fe:Mn varies from 0.9 to 2.9 similar to metalliferous sediments on the ridge flanks, but much higher than observed at Galapagos (where sub-surface precipitation of iron sulfides occurs) indicating that the overwhelming proportion of the mass flux from hydrothermal systems occurs at high temperatures. Zn ranges from 40 to 106 μmoles/kg with Cu being substantially lower. Since the ratio of these elements in tholeiites is about unity, there is strong net preferential mobilization of Zn. Lead ranges from 183 to 359 nmoles/kg. Nickel and Be are highly immobile relative to the other trace elements. The abundance of H2S is about three times that of the total sulfide-forming cations. These data demonstrate that acid solutions at elevated temperatures can transport substantial amounts of ore-forming elements in the presence of large excesses of sulfide.

Wisegarver, DP, Bullister JL, Van Woy FA, Menzia FA, Weiss RF.  1995.  Chlorofluorocarbon measurements in the Southwestern Pacific during the CGC-90 expedition. :98., Seattle, Washington: United States Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Environmental Research Laboratories Abstract
Warner, MJ, Weiss RF.  1992.  Chlorofluoromethanes in South Atlantic Antarctic Intermediate Water. Deep-Sea Research Part a-Oceanographic Research Papers. 39:2053-2075.   10.1016/0198-0149(92)90013-j   AbstractWebsite

Distributions of the dissolved atmospheric chlorofluoromethanes (CFMs) F-11 and F-12 in the South Atlantic Ocean are used to study the ventilation and circulation of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). CFM distributions on an isopycnal surface representative of AAIW are consistent with recently ventilated water entering the subtropical gyre in the southwestern Atlantic and then being advected anticyclonically around this gyre. The westward-flowing northern limb of the gyre apparently divides near the coast of South America with some water flowing southward to recirculate in the gyre, and the balance flowing northward along the coast of Brazil. At the equator this northward current divides again with one branch going eastward along the equator and the other continuing into the Northern Hemisphere. In the eastern tropical Atlantic, the CFM concentrations on this isopycnal surface in the cyclonic gyre are extremely low between the subtropical gyre and the equatorial tongue. Along the prime meridian, the F-11 and F-12 concentrations on the 27.2 sigma(theta) isopycnal surface between the mixed layer outcrop and the northern edge of the subtropical gyre are fitted to a one-dimensional advection-diffusion model. This model assumes that the CFMs enter the subtropical gyre solely by northward diffusion from the mixed layer outcrop to the southern edge of the subtropical gyre, and that their distributions within the gyre are controlled by both advective and diffusive processes. Velocity and eddy diffusion coefficients are calculated from a least-squares fit to the data. These values are then used to calculate a mean oxygen consumption rate which is consistent with rates calculated using models of other time-dependent geochemical tracers.

Rhew, RC, Miller BR, Weiss RF.  2008.  Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride and methyl chloroform fluxes in southern California ecosystems. Atmospheric Environment. 42:7135-7140.   10.1016/j.atmosenv.2008.05.038   AbstractWebsite

Chloroform (CHCl3), carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), and methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) are important carriers of chlorine to the stratosphere and account for an estimated 159 of the total organic chlorine in the troposphere, roughly equivalent to chlorine load due to methyl chloride (CH3Cl). The tropospheric burden of chlorine has declined since 1994, largely due to the restriction of CH3CCl3 and CCl4 use as specified by the Montreal Protocol. However, few field studies have been conducted on the terrestrial-atmosphere exchange of these chlorinated hydrocarbons, leading to uncertainties about the natural cycling of these trace gases. This work shows the results of 75 flux measurements conducted in a variety of southern California ecosystems, including coast sagebrush, chamise chaparral, creosote bush scrub, shoreline, and coastal salt marsh. We find no evidence of a significant soil sink in these ecosystems but rather a small net source of CHCl3 and possibly CCl4. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lueker, TJ, Walker SJ, Vollmer MK, Keeling RF, Nevison CD, Weiss RF, Garcia HE.  2003.  Coastal upwelling air-sea fluxes revealed in atmospheric observations of O2/N2, CO2 and N2O. Geophysical Research Letters. 30   10.1029/2002gl016615   AbstractWebsite

[1] We capture water column ventilation resulting from coastal upwelling in continuous records of O-2/N-2, CO2, and N2O at Trinidad, California. Our records reveal the gas exchange response time of the ocean to the upwelling and ensuing biological production. Satellite and buoy wind data allow extrapolation of our records to assess coastal upwelling air-sea fluxes of O-2 and N2O. We improve on previous regional estimates of N2O flux in coastal and continental shelf region of the western U. S. We characterize the source of N2O as being predominately from nitrification based on the O-2/N2O emissions ratio observed in our atmospheric records.

Rhoderick, GC, Hall BD, Harth CM, Kim JS, Lee J, Montzka SA, Mühle J, Reimann S, Vollmer MK, Weiss RF.  2015.  Comparison of halocarbon measurements in an atmospheric dry whole air sample. Elem Sci Anth..   10.12952/journal.elementa.000075   Abstract

The growing awareness of climate change/global warming, and continuing concerns regarding stratospheric ozone depletion, will require continued measurements and standards for many compounds, in particular halocarbons that are linked to these issues. In order to track atmospheric mole fractions and assess the impact of policy on emission rates, it is necessary to demonstrate measurement equivalence at the highest levels of accuracy for assigned values of standards. Precise measurements of these species aid in determining small changes in their atmospheric abundance. A common source of standards/scales and/or well-documented agreement of different scales used to calibrate the measurement instrumentation are key to understanding many sets of data reported by researchers. This report describes the results of a comparison study among National Metrology Institutes and atmospheric research laboratories for the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (CFC-113); the hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC-22) and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b); and the hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), all in a dried whole air sample. The objective of this study is to compare calibration standards/scales and the measurement capabilities of the participants for these halocarbons at trace atmospheric levels. The results of this study show agreement among four independent calibration scales to better than 2.5% in almost all cases, with many of the reported agreements being better than 1.0%.

Weiss, RF, Bucher P, Craig H, Oeschger H.  1972.  Compositional variations of gases in temperate glaciers. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 16:178-&.   10.1016/0012-821x(72)90186-0   AbstractWebsite

Concentrations of N2, O2, Ar and CO2 in ice from the Aletsch Glacier in the Bernese Alps have been measured by gas chromatography. Newly formed ice at the head of the glacier contains N2, O2 and Ar in roughly atmospheric proportions, whereas the CO2 content is ∼ 50 times greater than in air. Samples from the terminus of the glacier are considerably lower in total gas content, and are depleted in Ar and O2 and enriched in N2 with respect to air. The CO2 of this gas is ∼ 100 times greater than in air. Model calculations show that the N2-O2-Ar relationships are explained by the removal of these gases in solution in meltwater. In the case of CO2, the results indicate that only a small fraction of the CO2 in the ice is present in bubbles, the remainder being distributed within the ice matrix. Adsorption of atmospheric CO2 probably plays a role in determining the concentrations and distribution of CO2 in glacier ice.

Min, DH, Bullister JL, Weiss RF.  2000.  Constant ventilation age of thermocline water in the eastern subtropical North Pacific Ocean from chlorofluorocarbon measurements over a 12-year period. Geophysical Research Letters. 27:3909-3912.   10.1029/1999gl011318   AbstractWebsite

Northeastern Pacific chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) data collected between 1982 and 1994 near Geochemical Ocean Sections Study (GEOSECS) station 1 (28.5 degreesN, 122.5 degreesW) record decadal timescale ventilation processes of the subtropical thermocline in this region. The CFC-12 concentration age field versus potential density has been remarkably constant over the 12-year period, although CFC concentrations in the upper kilometer of the water column have increased with time. Results from a simple one-dimensional advection-diffusion model are consistent with an advection velocity of ca. 0.8-0.9 cm s(-1) from the source area. The influence of the 1982-83 El Nino is noticeable in the 1983 observations. While the main stream of subarctic source water al,pears to spread southward at a constant rate, during El Nino years the influence of comparatively CFC-free tropical thermocline waters is enhanced in this region, leading to reduced vertical inventories of CFCs, but without changing the apparent CFC ages as functions of potential density. Apparent oxygen utilization rates decrease with increasing CFC age, and also appear not to have changed significantly ol er the 12-year measurement period.

Lunt, MF, Park S, Li S, Henne S, Manning AJ, Ganesan AL, Simpson IJ, Blake DR, Liang Q, O'Doherty S, Harth CM, Mühle J, Salameh PK, Weiss RF, Krummel PB, Fraser PJ, Prinn RG, Reimann S, Rigby M.  2018.  Continued emissions of the ozone-depleting substance carbon tetrachloride from Eastern Asia. Geophysical Research Letters. : Wiley-Blackwell   10.1029/2018GL079500   Abstract

Abstract Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is an ozone-depleting substance, accounting for about 10% of the chlorine in the troposphere. Under the terms of the Montreal Protocol, its production for dispersive uses was banned from 2010. In this work we show that, despite the controls on production being introduced, CCl4 emissions from the eastern part of China did not decline between 2009 and 2016. This finding is in contrast to a recent bottom-up estimate, which predicted a significant decrease in emissions after the introduction of production controls. We find eastern Asian emissions of CCl4 to be 16 (9?24) Gg/year on average between 2009 and 2016, with the primary source regions being in eastern China. The spatial distribution of emissions that we derive suggests that the source distribution of CCl4 in China changed during the 8-year study period, indicating a new source or sources of emissions from China's Shandong province after 2012.

Montzka, SA, Fraser PJ, Butler JH, Connell PS, Cunnold DM, Daniel JS, Derwent RG, Lal S, McCulloch A, Oram D, Reeves CE, Sanhueza E, Steele LP, Velders GJM, Weiss RF, Zander R.  2003.  Controlled substances and other source gases. Scientific assessment of ozone depletion, 2002 (World Meteorological Organization, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, Report 47). :83., Washington, DC: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Abstract
Carmack, EC, Weiss RF.  1991.  Convection in Lake Baikal: an example of thermobaric instability. Deep Convection and Deep Water Formation in the Oceans. ( Chu PC, Gascard JC, Eds.).:215-228., Burlington: Elsevier Abstract

This book contains articles presenting current knowledge about the formation and renewal of deep waters in the ocean. These articles were presented at an international workshop at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey in March 1990.