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2018
Reimann, S, Elkins JW, Fraser PJ, Hall BD, Kurylo MJ, Mahieu E, Montzka SA, Prinn RG, Rigby M, Simmonds PG, Weiss RF.  2018.  Observing the atmospheric evolution of ozone-depleting substances. Comptes Rendus Geoscience. 350:384-392.   10.1016/j.crte.2018.08.008   AbstractWebsite

The atmospheric observations of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) have been essential for following their atmospheric response to the production and use restrictions imposed by the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments. ODSs have been used since the first half of the 20th century in industrial and domestic applications. However, their atmospheric growth went unnoticed until the early 1970s, when they were discovered using gas chromatograph-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) instruments. Similar instrumentation formed the basis of global flask and in situ measurements commenced by NOAA and ALE/GAGE/AGAGE in the late 1970s. The combination of these networks, supported by a number of other laboratories, has been essential for following the tropospheric trends of ODSs. Additionally, ground-based remote sensing measurements within NDACC and aircraft-based observation programs have been crucial for measuring the evolution of the ODS abundances over the entire atmosphere. Maintaining these networks at least at their current state is vital for ensuring the on-going verification of the success of the Montreal Protocol. (C) 2018 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

2004
Simmonds, PG, Derwent RG, Manning AJ, Fraser PJ, Krummel PB, O'Doherty S, Prinn RG, Cunnold DM, Miller BR, Wang HJ, Ryall DB, Porter LW, Weiss RF, Salameh PK.  2004.  AGAGE observations of methyl bromide and methyl chloride at Mace Head, Ireland, and Cape Grim, Tasmania, 1998-2001. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry. 47:243-269.   10.1023/B:JOCH.0000021136.52340.9c   AbstractWebsite

In situ AGAGE GC-MS measurements of methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) at Mace Head, Ireland and Cape Grim, Tasmania (1998-2001) reveal a complex pattern of sources. At Mace Head both gases have well-defined seasonal cycles with similar average annual decreases of 3.0% yr(-1) (CH3Br) and 2.6% yr(-1) (CH3Cl), and mean northern hemisphere baseline mole fractions of 10.37 +/- 0.05 ppt and 535.7 +/- 2.2 ppt, respectively. We have used a Lagrangian dispersion model and local meteorological data to segregate the Mace Head observations into different source regions, and interpret the results in terms of the known sources and sinks of these two key halocarbons. At Cape Grim CH3Br and CH3Cl also show annual decreases in their baseline mixing ratios of 2.5% yr(-1) and 1.5% yr(-1), respectively. Mean baseline mole fractions were 7.94 +/- 0.03 ppt (CH3Br) and 541.3 +/- 1.1 ppt (CH3Cl). Although CH3Cl has a strong seasonal cycle there is no well-defined seasonal cycle in the Cape Grim CH3Br record. The fact that both gases are steadily decreasing in the atmosphere at both locations implies that a change has occurred which is affecting a common, major source of both gases (possibly biomass burning) and/or their major sink process (destruction by hydroxyl radical).

2002
Rhew, RC, Miller BR, Bill M, Goldstein AH, Weiss RF.  2002.  Environmental and biological controls on methyl halide emissions from southern California coastal salt marshes. Biogeochemistry. 60:141-161.   10.1023/a:1019812006560   AbstractWebsite

Methyl bromide (CH3Br) and methyl chloride (CH3Cl) emission rates from southern California coastal salt marshes show large spatial and temporal variabilities that are strongly linked to biological and environmental factors. Here we discuss biogeochemical lines of evidence pointing to vegetation as the primary source of CH3Br and CH3Cl emissions from salt marshes. Sediments and macroalgae do not appear to be major producers of these compounds, based on observations that the highest fluxes are not inhibited by soil inundation; their emissions are not correlated with those of certain gases produced in soils; and emissions from mudflat- and macroalgae-dominated sites are relatively small. In contrast, the seasonal and spatial variabilities of methyl halide fluxes in these salt marshes are consistent with the production of these compounds by vascular plants, although the possibility of production by microflora or fungi associated with the salt marsh vegetation is not ruled out. Flux chamber measurements of emission rates are largely correlated to the overall plant biomass enclosed in the chamber, but appear also to be highly dependent on the predominant plant species. Emission rates follow a diurnal trend similar to the trends of ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation, but not surface soil temperature. Diurnal variabilities in the carbon isotope compositions of CH3Cl and CH3Br and their relative ratios of emissions are consistent with simultaneously competing mechanisms of uptake and production.