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Journal Article
Reimann, S, Elkins JW, Fraser PJ, Hall BD, Kurylo MJ, Mahieu E, Montzka SA, Prinn RG, Rigby M, Simmonds PG, Weiss RF.  2018.  Observing the atmospheric evolution of ozone-depleting substances. Comptes Rendus Geoscience. 350:384-392.   10.1016/j.crte.2018.08.008   AbstractWebsite

The atmospheric observations of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) have been essential for following their atmospheric response to the production and use restrictions imposed by the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments. ODSs have been used since the first half of the 20th century in industrial and domestic applications. However, their atmospheric growth went unnoticed until the early 1970s, when they were discovered using gas chromatograph-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) instruments. Similar instrumentation formed the basis of global flask and in situ measurements commenced by NOAA and ALE/GAGE/AGAGE in the late 1970s. The combination of these networks, supported by a number of other laboratories, has been essential for following the tropospheric trends of ODSs. Additionally, ground-based remote sensing measurements within NDACC and aircraft-based observation programs have been crucial for measuring the evolution of the ODS abundances over the entire atmosphere. Maintaining these networks at least at their current state is vital for ensuring the on-going verification of the success of the Montreal Protocol. (C) 2018 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Walker, SJ, Weiss RF, Salameh PK.  2000.  Reconstructed histories of the annual mean atmospheric mole fractions for the halocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and carbon tetrachloride. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans. 105:14285-14296.   10.1029/1999jc900273   AbstractWebsite

Annual mean mixing ratios for the halocarbons CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), CFC-113 (CClF2CCl2F), and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) have been determined from their first year of industrial production through 1998. From the late 1970s (in the case of CFC-11 and CFC-12) or early 1980s tin the case of CFC-113 and carbon tetrachloride) the reported mixing ratios have been determined from experimental observations made by the Atmospheric Lifetime Experiment/Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment/Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment program. For years prior to these times we have used estimates of industrial emissions and atmospheric lifetimes to calculate historic concentrations. The likely error bounds of the annual mean values are also reported here. Errors in the annual mean mixing ratio may primarily be a result of incorrect industrial emissions data, an incorrect atmospheric lifetime,or uncertainty in the ALE/GAGE/AGAGE observations. Each of these possible sources of error has been considered separately. These results show that atmospheric concentrations for each of these compounds have experienced a rapid rise in the early part of their production. Tt is only within the past decade that rise rates have decreased sharply and (except in the case of CFC-12) in the past few years that atmospheric concentrations have begun to decrease. The uncertainties in the reconstructed histories are a similar proportion for each of the chlorofluorocarbons (<4% for most of the history). However, uncertainty in the history of carbon tetrachloride is much greater (up to 12%, and this is mainly the result of poor knowledge of CCl4 emissions.