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Reimann, S, Elkins JW, Fraser PJ, Hall BD, Kurylo MJ, Mahieu E, Montzka SA, Prinn RG, Rigby M, Simmonds PG, Weiss RF.  2018.  Observing the atmospheric evolution of ozone-depleting substances. Comptes Rendus Geoscience. 350:384-392.   10.1016/j.crte.2018.08.008   AbstractWebsite

The atmospheric observations of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) have been essential for following their atmospheric response to the production and use restrictions imposed by the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments. ODSs have been used since the first half of the 20th century in industrial and domestic applications. However, their atmospheric growth went unnoticed until the early 1970s, when they were discovered using gas chromatograph-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) instruments. Similar instrumentation formed the basis of global flask and in situ measurements commenced by NOAA and ALE/GAGE/AGAGE in the late 1970s. The combination of these networks, supported by a number of other laboratories, has been essential for following the tropospheric trends of ODSs. Additionally, ground-based remote sensing measurements within NDACC and aircraft-based observation programs have been crucial for measuring the evolution of the ODS abundances over the entire atmosphere. Maintaining these networks at least at their current state is vital for ensuring the on-going verification of the success of the Montreal Protocol. (C) 2018 Academie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Muhle, J, Lueker TJ, Su Y, Miller BR, Prather KA, Weiss RF.  2007.  Trace gas and particulate emissions from the 2003 southern California wildfires. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 112   10.1029/2006jd007350   AbstractWebsite

In October 2003, thirteen major wildfires in southern California burned more than 300,000 hectares of mainly chaparral biome. High-precision in situ trace gas and particle measurements of the wildfire plumes in La Jolla, California, showed a high degree of correlation among carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), nonmethane hydrocarbons, and methyl halide mixing ratios, as well as with particle number concentrations (10-300 nm and 500-2500 nm aerodynamic diameter). Aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometry of individual aerosol particles (50-2500 nm range) showed that 70-85% had typical biomass burning signatures (levoglucosan coupled with potassium). Only 5-18% of particles in the 50 - 300 nm range had vehicle signatures. Molar trace gas enhancement ratios (ERs) versus ethane and CO(2) were calculated and showed a narrow age distribution, consistent with the short distance from the wildfires. ERs for N(2)O and CH(3)CCl(3) versus CO(2) were determined, but correlations were poor. No significant CH(2)Cl(2) or CHCl(3) emissions were detected. CO2 emissions from the nearby Cedar fire were estimated both with a simple Lagrangian atmospheric transport model and a burned area approach and extrapolated to 11 Tg CO(2) for the total burned area in southern California. Total CO(2), CH(4), C(2)-hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene, methyl chloride, methyl iodide, and PM(2.5) emissions were similar to 0.2-3.5% of yearly global extratropical forest fire emissions and more than 28% of CH(4), C(6)H(6), and PM(2.5) 2003 San Diego and South Coast Air Basins anthropogenic emissions. Particle distributions and single particle chemistry are discussed. PM(2.5) considerably exceeded the EPA short-term exposure limit.