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Edmond, JM, Jacobs SS, Gordon AL, Mantyla AW, Weiss RF.  1979.  Water column anomalies in dissolved silica over opaline pelagic sediments and the origin of the deep silica maximum. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans and Atmospheres. 84:7809-7826.   10.1029/JC084iC12p07809   AbstractWebsite

Recent estimates based on pore water studies and mass balance considerations put the average flux of dissolved silica from the sediments into the deep water at about 3 μmol cm−2 yr−1. This flux, if mixed uniformly in a bottom layer 100 m thick, results in an anomaly increment of 0.3 μmol kg−1 yr−1. In basins of restricted circulation containing opaline sediments the residence time of the bottom waters should be long enough that the resulting anomaly be easily resolvable using existing data. Examination of the many hundreds of detailed, precise silica profiles presently available in unpublished reports shows that this is indeed the case. The largest effects (∼50 μmol/kg) are seen in the Weddell-Enderby Basin. Intermediate anomalies (∼20 μmol/kg) are prevalent in the northern Indian Ocean. Lesser features (∼10 μmol/kg) are clearly discernable in the other antarctic basins and in the north Pacific. No anomalies are observed over the equatorial Pacific and Indian bands of opaline deposits, even in the basins east of the East Pacific Rise or in the Central Basin of the Indian Ocean. The flux of dissolved silica from the sea floor is generally unaccompanied by any resolvable oxygen consumption, indicating that relatively minor amounts of organic material reach the sediments in these regions. However, in the north Indian Ocean there are pronounced effects on all the nutrients, oxygen, and alkalinity, with regeneration approximating the Redfield prediction. In the northern Indian Ocean and the extreme northeast Pacific (northeast of 45°N, 160°W) the silica profiles increase to the bottom. This is a strong indication that the deep silica maximum observed over much of these oceans may have a large advective component, the feature itself being induced by the northward flow of the underlying low-silica bottom waters. In the Indian Ocean the data coverage is sufficient to demonstrate unequivocally the dominance of this effect.

Edmond, JM, Stallard RF, Craig H, Craig V, Weiss RF, Coulter GW.  1993.  Nutrient chemistry of the water column of Lake Tanganyika. Limnology and Oceanography. 38:725-738. AbstractWebsite

Lake Tanganyika shows permanent thermal stratification with deep-water temperatures that have been stable over the period of observation (since 1939). The lake is anoxic below approximately 150-m depth. In general the nutrients show Redfield behavior save in the deep waters of the northern basin where large excesses of phosphate and ammonia are present. Bacterial disproportionation of organic material probably plays an important role in producing these excesses. Inorganic desorption from fluvial detritus is also a possible source of excess phosphate in deep waters. The oxic-anoxic boundary at approximately 150 m is a sink for all forms of fixed nitrogen. Thus the nutrient budget of the lake probably involves fixation of nitrogen in the surface layer in addition to substantial inputs from rainfall and runoff, with the phosphate supplied by vertical mixing. Because these processes are in approximate balance under present conditions, the productivity of the lake must be very sensitive to changes in climatic forcing.

Elvidge, EL, Bonisch H, Brenninkmeijer CAM, Engel A, Fraser PJ, Gallacher E, Langenfelds R, Muhle J, Oram DE, Ray EA, Ridley AR, Rockmann T, Sturges WT, Weiss RF, Laube JC.  2018.  Evaluation of stratospheric age of air from CF4, C2F6, C3F8, CHF3, HFC-125, HFC-227ea and SF6; implications for the calculations of halocarbon lifetimes, fractional release factors and ozone depletion potentials. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. 18:3369-3385.   10.5194/acp-18-3369-2018   AbstractWebsite

In a changing climate, potential stratospheric circulation changes require long-term monitoring. Stratospheric trace gas measurements are often used as a proxy for stratospheric circulation changes via the "mean age of air" values derived from them. In this study, we investigated five potential age of air tracers - the perfluorocarbons CF4, C2F6 and C3F8 and the hydrofluorocarbons CHF3 (HFC-23) and HFC-125 - and compare them to the traditional tracer SF6 and a (relatively) shorter-lived species, HFC-227ea. A detailed uncertainty analysis was performed on mean ages derived from these "new" tracers to allow us to confidently compare their efficacy as age tracers to the existing tracer, SF6. Our results showed that uncertainties associated with the mean age derived from these new age tracers are similar to those derived from SF6, suggesting that these alternative compounds are suitable in this respect for use as age tracers. Independent verification of the suitability of these age tracers is provided by a comparison between samples analysed at the University of East Anglia and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. All five tracers give younger mean ages than SF6, a discrepancy that increases with increasing mean age. Our findings qualitatively support recent work that suggests that the stratospheric lifetime of SF6 is significantly less than the previous estimate of 3200 years. The impact of these younger mean ages on three policy-relevant parameters - stratospheric lifetimes, fractional release factors (FRFs) and ozone depletion potentials - is investigated in combination with a recently improved methodology to calculate FRFs. Updates to previous estimations for these parameters are provided.