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Flick, RE, Murray JF, Ewing LC.  2003.  Trends in United States tidal datum statistics and tide range. Journal of Waterway Port Coastal and Ocean Engineering-Asce. 129:155-164.   10.1061/(asce)0733-950x(2003)129:4(155)   AbstractWebsite

Yearly tidal datum statistics and tide ranges for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/National Ocean Service long-term stations in the United States tide gauge network were compiled and used to calculate their trends and statistical significance. At many stations, significant changes in the tide range were found, either in the diurnal tide range [mean higher high water (MHHW)-mean lower low water (MLLW)], or mean tide range [mean high water (MHW)-mean low water (MLW)]. For example, at San Francisco, the diurnal tide range increased by 64 mm from 1900 to 1998, while at Wilmington, N.C., the mean tide range increased at a rate of 542 mm per century from 1935 to 1999. This analysis suggests that any studies concerned with present or future water levels should take into account more tidal datum statistics than just mean sea level (MSL). For example, coastal flooding and storm damage studies should consider trends in high water levels, since it is the peak values that cause flooding and determine the design of coastal structures. For habitat restoration planning, mean low water and tide range changes should be considered.