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Whitmarsh, RB, Orcutt JA, Jordan TH, Adair RG, Shearer PM.  1987.  Velocity Bounds on the Seismic Structure of Mesozoic Crust and Uppr Mantle in the Southwest Pacific Basin from Downhole Observations at Deep-Sea Drilling Project Hole-595B. Initial Reports of the Deep Sea Drilling Project. 88:437-444.Website
Kaneko, Y, Shearer PM.  2015.  Variability of seismic source spectra, estimated stress drop, and radiated energy, derived fromcohesive-zonemodels of symmetrical and asymmetrical circular and elliptical ruptures. Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth. 120:1053-1079.   10.1002/2014jb011642   AbstractWebsite

Large variability of earthquake stress drops and scaled energy has been commonly reported in the literature, but it is difficult to assess how much of this variability is caused by underlying physical source processes rather than simply observational uncertainties. Here we examine a variety of dynamically realistic rupture scenarios for circular and elliptical faults and investigate to what extent the variability in seismically estimated stress drops and scaled energy comes from differences in source geometry, rupture directivity, and rupture speeds. We numerically simulate earthquake source scenarios using a cohesive-zone model with the small-scale yielding limit, where the solution approaches a singular crack model with spontaneous healing of slip. Compared to symmetrical circular source models, asymmetrical models result in larger variability of estimated corner frequencies and scaled energy over the focal sphere. The general behavior of the spherical averages of corner frequencies and scaled energy in the subshear regime extends to the supershear regime, although shear Mach waves generated by the propagation of supershear rupture lead to much higher corner frequency and scaled energy estimates locally. Our results suggest that at least a factor of 2 difference in the spherical average of corner frequencies is expected in observational studies simply from variability in source characteristics almost independent of the actual stress drops, translating into a factor of 8 difference in estimated stress drops. Furthermore, radiation efficiency estimates derived from observed seismic spectra should not be directly interpreted as describing rupture properties unless there are independent constraints on rupture speed and geometry.