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Prieto, GA, Parker RL, Vernon FL, Shearer PM, Thomson DJ.  2006.  Uncertainties in earthquake source spectrum estimation using empirical Green functions. Earthquakes; radiated energy and the physics of faulting. 170( Abercrombie RE, McGarr A, Kanamori H, Di Toro G, Eds.).:69-74., Washington: American Geophysical Union   10.1029/170gm08   Abstract

We analyze the problem of reliably estimating uncertainties of the earthquake source spectrum and related source parameters using Empirical Green Functions (EGF). We take advantage of the large dataset available from 10 seismic stations at hypocentral distances (10 km < d <50 km) to average spectral ratios of the 2001 M5.1 Anza earthquake and 160 nearby aftershocks. We estimate the uncertainty of the average source spectrum of the M5.1 target earthquake by performing propagation of errors, which, due to the large number of EGFs used, is significantly smaller than that obtained using a single EGF. Our approach provides estimates of both the earthquake source spectrum and its uncertainties, plus confidence intervals on related source parameters such as radiated seismic energy or apparent stress, allowing the assessment of statistical significance. This is of paramount importance when comparing different sized earthquakes and analyzing source scaling of the earthquake rupture process. Our best estimate of radiated energy for the target earthquake is 1.24×1011 Joules with 95% confidence intervals (0.73×1011, 2.28×1011). The estimated apparent stress of 0.33 (0.19, 0.59) MPa is relatively low compared to previous estimates from smaller earthquakes (1MPa) in the same region.

Wolfe, CJ, Okubo PG, Ekstrom G, Nettles M, Shearer PM.  2004.  Characteristics of deep (<= 13 km) Hawaiian earthquakes and Hawaiian earthquakes west of 155.55 degrees W. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems. 5   10.1029/2003gc000618   AbstractWebsite

[ 1] High precision relocation of earthquakes recorded by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) seismic network provides new information on the characteristics of seismic faulting at this oceanic hot spot. Using waveform cross correlation, we have measured correlation coefficients and travel time differences for a set of 14,605 deep (greater than or equal to 13 km) earthquakes recorded from 1988 to 1998. We find that about half of the analyzed earthquakes are in similar event clusters that delineate fault zones in the lower crust and upper mantle. We suggest that much of this deep seismicity reflects rupture in the brittle lithosphere away from the magma pathways, although at Kilauea the stresses from magma movement may additionally help trigger mantle earthquakes on preexisting faults in regions with high differential ambient stresses. Focal mechanisms of similar event clusters throughout Hawaii display characteristic patterns and appear consistent with the hypothesis that deep earthquakes on preexisting faults reflect the stresses due to volcano loading and flexure. We also present the results of applying cross correlation analyses and relocation to -7000 earthquakes at all depths located west of 155.55degreesW and recorded from 1988 to 1998. The pattern of relocated earthquakes at the Kealakekua fault zone is consistent with the presence of a lowangle detachment on the west flank of Mauna Loa.