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Journal Article
Shiomi, K, Narazaki T, Sato K, Shimatani K, Arai N, Ponganis PJ, Miyazaki N.  2010.  Data-processing artefacts in three-dimensional dive path reconstruction from geomagnetic and acceleration data. Aquatic Biology. 8:299-304.   10.3354/ab00239   AbstractWebsite

Tri-axis magnetism and acceleration data loggers have recently been used to obtain time-series headings and, consequently, the 3-dimensional dive paths of aquatic animals. However, problems may arise in the resulting calculation process with multiple parameters. In this study, the dive paths of loggerhead turtles and emperor penguins were reconstructed. For both species, apparently unrealistic movements were found. Time-series heading data of turtles showed small regular fluctuations synchronous with stroking. In the dive paths of penguins, infrequent abrupt changes in heading were observed during stroke cycles. These were unlikely to represent true behaviours according to observations of underwater behaviour and tri-axis magnetism and acceleration data. Based on the relationship between sampling frequency and frequency of body posture change, we suggest that (1) the changes in the animals' posture concurrent with strokes and (2) the mismatched treatment (i.e. filtering and non-filtering) of the acceleration and magnetism data caused the artefacts. These inferences are supported by the results of simulations. For data sets obtained at a given sampling frequency, the error pattern in calculated dive paths is likely to differ depending on the frequency and amplitude of body posture changes and in swim speed. In order to avoid misinterpretation, it is necessary to understand the assumptions and inherent problems of the calculation methods as well as the behavioural characteristics of the study animals.

Shiomi, K, Sato K, Mitamura H, Arai N, Naito Y, Ponganis PJ.  2008.  Effect of ocean current on the dead-reckoning estimation of 3-D dive paths of emperor penguins. Aquatic Biology. 3:265-270.   10.3354/ab00087   AbstractWebsite

The dead-reckoning technique is a useful method for obtaining 3-D movement data of aquatic animals. However, such positional data include an accumulative error. Understanding the source of the error is important for proper data interpretation. In order to determine whether ocean currents affect dive paths calculated by dead-reckoning, as has previously been hypothesized, we examined the directions of the estimated positions relative to the known real points (error direction) and the relationship between the error direction and the current direction. 3-D dive paths of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri diving at isolated dive holes in eastern McMurdo Sound were reconstructed by dead-reckoning, and the net error and error direction were calculated. The net error correlated positively with the dive duration. The error directions were not distributed uniformly, and the mean error direction tended to be north of the starting point of dives. Because there was a southward-flowing current in eastern McMurdo Sound, the ocean current was likely to affect the calculated dive paths. Therefore, the method of error correction generally used, in which the net error divided by the dive duration is applied to each estimated position, is realistically appropriate, provided that the current does not change significantly during a dive.

Kooyman, GL, Ainley DG, Ballard G, Ponganis PJ.  2007.  Effects of giant icebergs on two emperor penguin colonies in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Antarctic Science. 19:31-38.   10.1017/s0954102007000065   AbstractWebsite

The arrival in January 2001 in the south-west Ross Sea of two giant icebergs, C16 and Bl5A, subsequently had dramatic affects on two emperor penguin colonies. B15A collided with the north-west tongue of the Ross Ice Shelf at Cape Crozier, Ross Island, in the following months and destroyed the penguins' nesting habitat. The colony totally failed in 2001, and years after, with the icebergs still in place, exhibited reduced production that ranged from 0 to 40% of the 1201 chicks produced in 2000. At Beaufort Island, 70 km NW of Crozier, chick production declined to 6% of the 2000 count by 2004. Collisions with the Ross Ice Shelf at Cape Crozier caused incubating adults to be crushed, trapped in ravines, or to abandon the colony and, since 2001, to occupy poorer habitat. The icebergs separated Beaufort Island from the Ross Sea Polynya, formerly an easy route to feeding and wintering areas. This episode has provided a glimpse of events which have probably occurred infrequently since the West Antarctic Ice Sheet began to retreat 12 000 years ago. The results allow assessment of recovery rates for one colony decimated by both adult and chick mortality, and the other colony by adult abandonment and chick mortality.

Ancel, A, Starke LN, Ponganis PJ, Van Dam R, Kooyman GL.  2000.  Energetics of surface swimming in Brandt's cormorants (Phalacrocorax penicillatus Brandt). Journal of Experimental Biology. 203:3727-3731. AbstractWebsite

The energy requirements of Brandt's cormorants (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) during surface swimming were measured in birds swimming under a metabolic chamber in a water flume. From the oxygen consumption recordings, we extrapolated the metabolic rate and cost of transport at water speeds ranging from 0 to 1.3 ms(-1). In still water, the birds' mean mass-specific rate of oxygen consumption ((V)over dot(O2),) while floating at the surface was 20.2ml O-2 min(-1) kg(-1), 2.1 times the predicted resting metabolic rate. During steady-state voluntary swimming against a how, their Po, increased with water speed, reaching 74 mi O-2 min(-1) kg(-1) at 1.3 ms(-1), which corresponded to an increase in metabolic rate from 11 to 25 W kg(-1). The cost of transport decreased,vith swimming velocity, approaching a minimum of 19 J kg(-1) m(-1) for a swimming speed of 1.3 m s(-1) Surface swimming in the cormorant costs approximately 18% less than sub-surface swimming. This confirms similar findings in tufted ducks (Aythya fuligula) and supports the hypothesis that increased energy requirements are necessary in these bird diving to overcome buoyancy and heat submergence.

Blight, LK, Ainley DG, Ackley SF, Ballard G, Ballerini T, Brownell RL, Cheng CHC, Chiantore M, Costa D, Coulter MC, Dayton P, Devries AL, Dunbar R, Earle S, Eastman JT, Emslie SD, Evans CW, Garrott RA, Kim S, Kooyman G, Lescroel A, Lizotte M, Massaro M, Olmastroni S, Ponganis PJ, Russell J, Siniff DB, Smith WO, Stewart BS, Stirling I, Willis J, Wilson P, Woehler EJ.  2010.  Fishing for data in the Ross Sea. Science. 330:1316-1316.   10.1126/science.330.6009.1316   AbstractWebsite
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Ancel, A, Kooyman GL, Ponganis PJ, Gendner JP, Lignon J, Mestre X, Huin N, Thorson PH, Robisson P, Lemaho Y.  1992.  Foraging behaviour of emperor penguins as a resource detector in winter and summer. Nature. 360:336-339.   10.1038/360336a0   AbstractWebsite

The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri), which feeds only at sea, is restricted to the higher latitudes of the antarctic sea-ice habitat1-3. It breeds on the winter fast ice when temperatures are -30-degrees-C and high winds are frequent3. Assuming entirely the task of incubating the single egg, the male fasts for about 120 days in the most severe conditions. When it is relieved by the female around hatching time, the distance between the colony and the open sea may be 100 km or more4,5, but where emperors go to forage at that time or during the summer is unknown. The polynias are areas of open water in sea-ice and during winter, with the under-ice habitats at any time of the year, they are among the most difficult of all Antarctic areas to sample. Here we monitor by satellite the routes taken by emperor penguins for foraging and compare them with satellite images of sea-ice. Winter birds walking over fast ice travelled up to 296 km to feed in polynias, whereas those swimming in light pack-ice travelled as far as 895 km from the breeding colony. One record of diving showed that although most dives are to mid-water depths, some are near the bottom. Obtaining such detailed information on foraging in emperor penguins means that this bird now offers a unique opportunity to investigate the Antarctic sea-ice habitat.

Cristofari, R, Bertorelle G, Ancel A, Benazzo A, Lemaho Y, Ponganis PJ, Stenseth NC, Trathan PN, Whittington JD, Zanetti E, Zitterbart DP, Le Bohec C, Trucchi E.  2016.  Full circumpolar migration ensures evolutionary unity in the Emperor penguin. Nature Communications. 7   10.1038/ncomms11842   AbstractWebsite

Defining reliable demographic models is essential to understand the threats of ongoing environmental change. Yet, in the most remote and threatened areas, models are often based on the survey of a single population, assuming stationarity and independence in population responses. This is the case for the Emperor penguin Aptenodytes forsteri, a flagship Antarctic species that may be at high risk continent-wide before 2100. Here, using genome-wide data from the whole Antarctic continent, we reveal that this top-predator is organized as one single global population with a shared demography since the late Quaternary. We refute the view of the local population as a relevant demographic unit, and highlight that (i) robust extinction risk estimations are only possible by including dispersal rates and (ii) colony-scaled population size is rather indicative of local stochastic events, whereas the species' response to global environmental change is likely to follow a shared evolutionary trajectory.

Sato, K, Watanuki Y, Takahashi A, Miller PJO, Tanaka H, Kawabe R, Ponganis PJ, Handrich Y, Akamatsu T, Watanabe Y, Mitani Y, Costa DP, Bost CA, Aoki K, Amano M, Trathan P, Shapiro A, Naito Y.  2007.  Stroke frequency, but not swimming speed, is related to body size in free-ranging seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences. 274:471-477.   10.1098/rspb.2006.0005   AbstractWebsite

It is obvious, at least qualitatively, that small animals move their locomotory apparatus faster than large animals: small insects move their wings invisibly fast, while large birds flap their wings slowly. However, quantitative observations have been difficult to obtain from free-ranging swimming animals. We surveyed the swimming behaviour of animals ranging from 0.5 kg seabirds to 30 000 kg sperm whales using animal-borne accelerometers. Dominant stroke cycle frequencies of swimming specialist seabirds and marine mammals were proportional to mass(-0.29) (R-2=0.99, n=17 groups), while propulsive swimming speeds of 1-2 m s(-1) were independent of body size. This scaling relationship, obtained from breath-hold divers expected to swim optimally to conserve oxygen, does not agree with recent theoretical predictions for optimal swimming. Seabirds that use their wings for both swimming and flying stroked at a lower frequency than other swimming specialists of the same size, suggesting a morphological trade-off with wing size and stroke frequency representing a compromise. In contrast, foot-propelled diving birds such as shags had similar stroke frequencies as other swimming specialists. These results suggest that muscle characteristics may constrain swimming during cruising travel, with convergence among diving specialists in the proportions and contraction rates of propulsive muscles.