The aerobic submersion limit of Baikal seals, <i>Phoca sibirica</i>

Ponganis, PJ, Kooyman GL, Baranov EA, Thorson PH, Stewart BS.  1997.  The aerobic submersion limit of Baikal seals, Phoca sibirica. Canadian Journal of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie. 75:1323-1327.

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blood, dive, diving behavior, limit, metabolic rates, oxygen stores, penguins, weddell seals


An aerobic dive limit (ADL), the diving duration beyond which postdive lactate concentration increases above the resting level, has been estimated theoretically for many species. Such calculations have been based on an oxygen store/diving metabolic rate (MR) equation. Until now, an ADL has been determined empirically from measurements of blood lactate concentration only in the Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii. We measured post-submergence plasma lactate concentrations during spontaneous voluntary submersions of three captive adult Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica). Two-phase regression analysis revealed a transition in the lactate concentration - submersion duration relationship after the animal had been diving for 15 min. Data collected in prior studies on oxygen stores and submersion metabolic rates of Baikal seals yielded a calculated aerobic limit of 16 min. As in Weddell seals, the empirically determined aerobic limit was very similar to the theoretical limit. Furthermore, most diving durations recorded during recent studies of free-ranging Baikal seals are under this limit. These data support the concept of an ADL and its estimation by means of an oxygen store/diving MR calculation.