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Gallagher, KA, Wanger G, Henderson J, Llorente M, Hughes CC, Jensen PR.  2017.  Ecological implications of hypoxia-triggered shifts in secondary metabolism. Environmental Microbiology. 19:2182-2191.   10.1111/1462-2920.13700   AbstractWebsite

Members of the actinomycete genus Streptomyces are non-motile, filamentous bacteria that are well-known for the production of biomedically relevant secondary metabolites. While considered obligate aerobes, little is known about how these bacteria respond to periods of reduced oxygen availability in their natural habitats, which include soils and ocean sediments. Here, we provide evidence that the marine streptomycete strain CNQ-525 can reduce MnO2 via a diffusible mechanism. We investigated the effects of hypoxia on secondary metabolite production and observed a shift away from the antibiotic napyradiomycin towards 8-aminoflaviolin, an intermediate in the napyradiomycin biosynthetic pathway. We purified 8-amino-flaviolin and demonstrated that it is reversibly redox-active (midpoint potential -474.5 mV), indicating that it has the potential to function as an endogenous extracellular electron shuttle. This study provides evidence that environmentally triggered changes in secondary metabolite production may provide clues to the ecological functions of specific compounds, and that Gram-positive bacteria considered to be obligate aerobes may play previously unrecognized roles in biogeochemical cycling through mechanisms that include extracellular electron shuttling.

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Kaysser, L, Bernhardt P, Nam SJ, Loesgen S, Ruby JG, Skewes-Cox P, Jensen PR, Fenical W, Moore BS.  2012.  Merochlorins A-D, Cyclic Meroterpenoid Antibiotics Biosynthesized in Divergent Pathways with Vanadium-Dependent Chloroperoxidases. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 134:11988-11991.   10.1021/ja305665f   AbstractWebsite

Meroterpenoids are mixed polyketide-terpenoid natural products with a broad range of biological activities. Herein, we present the structures of four new meroterpenoid antibiotics, merochlorins A-D, produced by the marine bacterium Streptomyces sp. strain CNH-189, which possess novel chemical skeletons unrelated to known bacterial agents. Draft genome sequencing, mutagenesis, and heterologous biosynthesis in the genome-minimized model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor provided the 57.6 kb merochlorin gene cluster that contains two genes encoding rare bacterial vanadium-dependent haloperoxidase (VHPO) genes. Pathway expression of two different fosmid clones that differ largely by the presence or absence of the VHPO gene mcl40 resulted in the differential biosynthesis of merochlorin C, suggesting that Mcl40 catalyzes an unprecedented 15-membered chloronium-induced macrocyclization reaction converting merochlorin D to merochlorin C.

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Schultz, AW, Oh DC, Carney JR, Williamson RT, Udwary DW, Jensen PR, Gould SJ, Fenical W, Moore BS.  2008.  Biosynthesis and structures of cyclomarins and cyclomarazines, prenylated cyclic peptides of marine actinobacterial origin. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 130:4507-4516.   10.1021/ja711188x   AbstractWebsite

Two new diketopiperazine dipeptides, cyclomarazines A and B, were isolated and characterized along with the new cyclic heptapeptide cyclomarin D from the marine bacterium Salinispora arenicola CNS-205. These structurally related cyclic peptid es each contain modified amino acid residues, including derivatives of N-(1,1-dimethylallyl)-tryptophan and delta-hydroxyleucine, which are common in the di- and heptapeptide series. Stable isotope incorporation studies in Streptomyces sp. CNB-982, which was first reported to produce the cyclomarin anti-inflammatory agents, illuminated the biosynthetic building blocks associated with the major metabolite cyclomarin A, signifying that this marine microbial peptide is nonribosomally derived largely from nonproteinogenic amino acid residues. DNA sequence analysis of the 5.8 Mb S. arenicola circular genome and PCR-targeted gene inactivation experiments identified the 47 kb cyclomarin/cyclomarazine biosynthetic gene cluster (cym) harboring 23 open reading frames. The cym locus is dominated by the 23 358 bp cymA, which encodes a 7-module nonribosomal pepticle synthetase (NRPS) responsible for assembly of the full-length cyclomarin heptapeptides as well as the truncated cyclomarazine dipeptides. The unprecedented biosynthetic feature of the megasynthetase CymA to synthesize differently sized peptides in vivo may be triggered by the level of P oxidation of the priming tryptophan residue, which is oxidized in the cyclomarin series and unoxidized in the cyclomarazines. Biosynthesis of the N-(1;1-dimethyl-2,3-epoxypropyl)-beta-hydroxytryptophan residue of cyclomarin A was further illuminated through gene inactivation experiments, which suggest that the tryptophan residue is reverse prenylated by CymD prior to release of the cyclic peptide from the CymA megasynthetase, whereas the cytochrome P450 CymV installs the epoxide group on the isoprene of cyclomarin C post-NRPS assembly. Last, the novel amino acid residue 2-amino-3,5-dimethylhex-4-enoic acid in the cyclomarin series was shown by bioinformatics and stable isotope experiments to derive from a new pathway involving condensation of isobutyralclehyde and pyruvate followed by S-adenosylmethionine methylation. Assembly of this unsaturated, branched amino acid is unexpectedly related to the degradation of the environmental pollutant 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid.

W
Wang, MX, Carver JJ, Phelan VV, Sanchez LM, Garg N, Peng Y, Nguyen DD, Watrous J, Kapono CA, Luzzatto-Knaan T et al..  2016.  Sharing and community curation of mass spectrometry data with Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking. Nature Biotechnology. 34:828-837.   10.1038/nbt.3597   AbstractWebsite

The potential of the diverse chemistries present in natural products (NP) for biotechnology and medicine remains untapped because NP databases are not searchable with raw data and the NP community has no way to share data other than in published papers. Although mass spectrometry (MS) techniques are well-suited to high-throughput characterization of NP, there is a pressing need for an infrastructure to enable sharing and curation of data. We present Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS; http://gnps.ucsd.edu), an open-access knowledge base for community-wide organization and sharing of raw, processed or identified tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. In GNPS, crowdsourced curation of freely available community-wide reference MS libraries will underpin improved annotations. Data-driven social-networking should facilitate identification of spectra and foster collaborations. We also introduce the concept of 'living data' through continuous reanalysis of deposited data.