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2018
Patin, NV, Floros DJ, Hughes CC, Dorrestein PC, Jensen PR.  2018.  The role of inter-species interactions in Salinispora specialized metabolism. Microbiology-Sgm. 164:946-955.   10.1099/mic.0.000679   AbstractWebsite

Bacterial genome sequences consistently contain many more biosynthetic gene clusters encoding specialized metabolites than predicted by the compounds discovered from the respective strains. One hypothesis invoked to explain the cryptic nature of these gene clusters is that standard laboratory conditions do not provide the environmental cues needed to trigger gene expression. A potential source of such cues is other members of the bacterial community, which are logical targets for competitive interactions. In this study, we examined the effects of such interactions on specialized metabolism in the marine actinomycete Salinispora tropica. The results show that antibiotic activities and the concentration of some small molecules increase in the presence of co-occurring bacterial strains relative to monocultures. Some increases in antibiotic activity could be linked to nutrient depletion by the competitor as opposed to the production of a chemical cue. Other increases were correlated with the production of specific compounds by S. tropica. In particular, one interaction with a Vibrio sp. consistently induced antibiotic activity and was associated with parent ions that were unique to this interaction, although the associated compound could not be identified. This study provides insight into the metabolomic complexities of bacterial interactions and baseline information for future genome mining efforts.

Bruns, H, Crusemann M, Letzel AC, Alanjary M, McInerney JO, Jensen PR, Schulz S, Moore BS, Ziemert N.  2018.  Function-related replacement of bacterial siderophore pathways. Isme Journal. 12:320-329.   10.1038/ismej.2017.137   AbstractWebsite

Bacterial genomes are rife with orphan biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) associated with secondary metabolism of unrealized natural product molecules. Often up to a tenth of the genome is predicted to code for the biosynthesis of diverse metabolites with mostly unknown structures and functions. This phenomenal diversity of BGCs coupled with their high rates of horizontal transfer raise questions about whether they are really active and beneficial, whether they are neutral and confer no advantage, or whether they are carried in genomes because they are parasitic or addictive. We previously reported that Salinispora bacteria broadly use the desferrioxamine family of siderophores for iron acquisition. Herein we describe a new and unrelated group of peptidic siderophores called salinichelins from a restricted number of Salinispora strains in which the desferrioxamine biosynthesis genes have been lost. We have reconstructed the evolutionary history of these two different siderophore families and show that the acquisition and retention of the new salinichelin siderophores co- occurs with the loss of the more ancient desferrioxamine pathway. This identical event occurred at least three times independently during the evolution of the genus. We surmise that certain BGCs may be extraneous because of their functional redundancy and demonstrate that the relative evolutionary pace of natural pathway replacement shows high selective pressure against retention of functionally superfluous gene clusters.

2017
Letzel, AC, Li J, Amos GCA, Millan-Aguinaga N, Ginigini J, Abdelmohsen UR, Gaudencio SP, Ziemert N, Moore BS, Jensen PR.  2017.  Genomic insights into specialized metabolism in the marine actinomycete Salinispora. Environmental Microbiology. 19:3660-3673.   10.1111/1462-2920.13867   AbstractWebsite

Comparative genomics is providing new opportunities to address the diversity and distributions of genes encoding the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites. An analysis of 119 genome sequences representing three closely related species of the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora reveals extraordinary biosynthetic diversity in the form of 176 distinct biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) of which only 24 have been linked to their products. Remarkably, more than half of the BGCs were observed in only one or two strains, suggesting they were acquired relatively recently in the evolutionary history of the genus. These acquired gene clusters are concentrated in specific genomic islands, which represent hot spots for BGC acquisition. While most BGCs are stable in terms of their chromosomal position, others migrated to different locations or were exchanged with unrelated gene clusters suggesting a plug and play type model of evolution that provides a mechanism to test the relative fitness effects of specialized metabolites. Transcriptome analyses were used to address the relationships between BGC abundance, chromosomal position and product discovery. The results indicate that recently acquired BGCs can be functional and that complex evolutionary processes shape the micro-diversity of specialized metabolism observed in closely related environmental bacteria.

Patin, NV, Schorn M, Aguinaldo K, Lincecum T, Moore BS, Jensen PR.  2017.  Effects of actinomycete secondary metabolites on sediment microbial communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 83   10.1128/aem.02676-16   Abstract

Marine sediments harbor complex microbial communities that remain poorly studied relative to other biomes such as seawater. Moreover, bacteria in these communities produce antibiotics and other bioactive secondary metabolites, yet little is known about how these compounds affect microbial community structure. In this study, we used next-generation amplicon sequencing to assess native microbial community composition in shallow tropical marine sediments. The results revealed complex communities comprised of largely uncultured taxa, with considerable spatial heterogeneity and known antibiotic producers comprising only a small fraction of the total diversity. Organic extracts from cultured strains of the sedimentdwelling actinomycete genus Salinispora were then used in mesocosm studies to address how secondary metabolites shape sediment community composition. We identified predatory bacteria and other taxa that were consistently reduced in the extract-treated mesocosms, suggesting that they may be the targets of allelopathic interactions. We tested related taxa for extract sensitivity and found general agreement with the culture-independent results. Conversely, several taxa were enriched in the extract-treated mesocosms, suggesting that some bacteria benefited from the interactions. The results provide evidence that bacterial secondary metabolites can have complex and significant effects on sediment microbial communities. IMPORTANCE Ocean sediments represent one of Earth's largest and most poorly studied biomes. These habitats are characterized by complex microbial communities where competition for space and nutrients can be intense. This study addressed the hypothesis that secondary metabolites produced by the sediment-inhabiting actinomycete Salinispora arenicola affect community composition and thus mediate interactions among competing microbes. Next-generation amplicon sequencing of mesocosm experiments revealed complex communities that shifted following exposure to S. arenicola extracts. The results reveal that certain predatory bacteria were consistently less abundant following exposure to extracts, suggesting that microbial metabolites mediate competitive interactions. Other taxa increased in relative abundance, suggesting a benefit from the extracts themselves or the resulting changes in the community. This study takes a first step toward assessing the impacts of bacterial metabolites on sediment microbial communities. The results provide insight into how low-abundance organisms may help structure microbial communities in ocean sediments.

2014
Ziemert, N, Lechner A, Wietz M, Millan-Aguinaga N, Chavarria KL, Jensen PR.  2014.  Diversity and evolution of secondary metabolism in the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 111:E1130-E1139.   10.1073/pnas.1324161111   AbstractWebsite

Access to genome sequence data has challenged traditional natural product discovery paradigms by revealing that the products of most bacterial biosynthetic pathways have yet to be discovered. Despite the insight afforded by this technology, little is known about the diversity and distributions of natural product biosynthetic pathways among bacteria and how they evolve to generate structural diversity. Here we analyze genome sequence data derived from 75 strains of the marine actinomycete genus Salinispora for pathways associated with polyketide and nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis, the products of which account for some of today's most important medicines. The results reveal high levels of diversity, with a total of 124 pathways identified and 229 predicted with continued sequencing. Recent horizontal gene transfer accounts for the majority of pathways, which occur in only one or two strains. Acquired pathways are incorporated into genomic islands and are commonly exchanged within and between species. Acquisition and transfer events largely involve complete pathways, which subsequently evolve by gene gain, loss, and duplication followed by divergence. The exchange of similar pathway types at the precise chromosomal locations in different strains suggests that the mechanisms of integration include pathway-level homologous recombination. Despite extensive horizontal gene transfer there is clear evidence of species-level vertical inheritance, supporting the concept that secondary metabolites represent functional traits that help define Salinispora species. The plasticity of the Salinispora secondary metabolome provides an effective mechanism to maximize population-level secondary metabolite diversity while limiting the number of pathways maintained within any individual genome.

2013
Alvarez-Mico, X, Jensen PR, Fenical W, Hughes CC.  2013.  Chlorizidine, a Cytotoxic 5H-Pyrrolo 2,1-a isoindol-5-one-Containing Alkaloid from a Marine Streptomyces sp. Organic Letters. 15:988-991.   10.1021/ol303374e   AbstractWebsite

Cultivation of an obligate marine Streptomyces strain has provided the cytotoxic natural product chlorizidine A. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the metabolite is composed of a chlorinated 2,3-dihydropyrrolizine ring attached to a chlorinated 5H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one. The carbon stereocenter in the dihydropyrrolizine is S-configured. Remarkably, the 5H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one moiety has no precedence in the field of natural products. The presence of this ring system, which was demonstrated to undergo facile nucleophilic substitution reactions at the activated carbonyl group, is essential to the molecule's cytotoxicity against HCT-116 human colon cancer cells.

Gallagher, KA, Rauscher K, Ioca LP, Jensen PR.  2013.  Phylogenetic and chemical diversity of a hybrid-isoprenoid producing streptomycete lineage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 79:6894-6902.   10.1128/aem.01814-13   AbstractWebsite

Streptomyces species dedicate a large portion of their genomes to secondary metabolite biosynthesis. A diverse and largely marine-derived lineage within this genus has been designated MAR4 and identified as a prolific source of hybrid isoprenoid (HI) secondary metabolites. These terpenoid-containing compounds are common in nature but rarely observed as bacterial secondary metabolites. To assess the phylogenetic diversity of the MAR4 lineage, complementary culture-based and culture-independent techniques were applied to marine sediment samples collected off the Channel Islands, CA. The results, including those from an analysis of publically available sequence data and strains isolated as part of prior studies, placed 40 new strains in the MAR4 clade, of which 32 originated from marine sources. When combined with sequences cloned from environmental DNA, 28 MAR4 operational taxonomic units (0.01% genetic distance) were identified. Of these, 82% consisted exclusively of either cloned sequences or cultured strains, supporting the complementarity of these two approaches. Chemical analyses of diverse MAR4 strains revealed the production of five different HI structure classes. All 21 MAR4 strains tested produced at least one HI class, with most strains producing from two to four classes. The two major clades within the MAR4 lineage displayed distinct patterns in the structural classes and the number and amount of HIs produced, suggesting a relationship between taxonomy and secondary metabolite production. The production of HI secondary metabolites appears to be a phenotypic trait of the MAR4 lineage, which represents an emerging model with which to study the ecology and evolution of HI biosynthesis.

2012
Kaysser, L, Bernhardt P, Nam SJ, Loesgen S, Ruby JG, Skewes-Cox P, Jensen PR, Fenical W, Moore BS.  2012.  Merochlorins A-D, Cyclic Meroterpenoid Antibiotics Biosynthesized in Divergent Pathways with Vanadium-Dependent Chloroperoxidases. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 134:11988-11991.   10.1021/ja305665f   AbstractWebsite

Meroterpenoids are mixed polyketide-terpenoid natural products with a broad range of biological activities. Herein, we present the structures of four new meroterpenoid antibiotics, merochlorins A-D, produced by the marine bacterium Streptomyces sp. strain CNH-189, which possess novel chemical skeletons unrelated to known bacterial agents. Draft genome sequencing, mutagenesis, and heterologous biosynthesis in the genome-minimized model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor provided the 57.6 kb merochlorin gene cluster that contains two genes encoding rare bacterial vanadium-dependent haloperoxidase (VHPO) genes. Pathway expression of two different fosmid clones that differ largely by the presence or absence of the VHPO gene mcl40 resulted in the differential biosynthesis of merochlorin C, suggesting that Mcl40 catalyzes an unprecedented 15-membered chloronium-induced macrocyclization reaction converting merochlorin D to merochlorin C.

2011
Nam, SJ, Kauffman CA, Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2011.  Isolation and characterization of actinoramides A-C, highly modified peptides from a marine Streptomyces sp. Tetrahedron. 67:6707-6712.   10.1016/j.tet.2011.04.051   AbstractWebsite

Reported herein is the isolation and structure elucidation of three highly modified peptides, actinoramides A-C (1-3), which are produced by a marine bacterium closely related to the genus Streptomyces. The planar structures of the actinoramides, which are composed of the unusual amino acids 2-amino-4-ureidobutanoic acid and 4-amino-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-5-phenylpentanoic acid, were assigned by chemical transformations and by interpretation of spectroscopic data, while the absolute configuration of these new peptides were defined by application of the advanced Marfey's and Mosher's methods. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

2010
Oh, H, Jensen PR, Murphy BT, Fiorilla C, Sullivan JF, Ramsey T, Fenical W.  2010.  Cryptosphaerolide, a Cytotoxic Mcl-1 Inhibitor from a Marine-Derived Ascomycete Related to the Genus Cryptosphaeria. Journal of Natural Products. 73:998-1001.   10.1021/np1000889   AbstractWebsite

Examination of the saline fermentation products from the marine-derived ascomycete fungal strain CNL-523 (Cryptosphaeria sp.) resulted in the isolation of cryptosphaerolide (1). The new compound is an ester-substituted sesquiterpenoid related to the eremophilane class, The structure of the new compound was assigned by spectroscopic and chemical methods. Cryptosphaerolide was found to be an inhibitor of the protein Mcl-1, a cancer drug target involved in apoptosis. It also showed significant cytotoxicity against an HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cell line, indicating that the compound may be of value in exploring the Mcl-1 pathway as a target for cancer chemotherapy.

Gallagher, KA, Fenical W, Jensen PR.  2010.  Hybrid isoprenoid secondary metabolite production in terrestrial and marine actinomycetes. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 21:794-800.   10.1016/j.copbio.2010.09.010   AbstractWebsite

Terpenoids are among the most ubiquitous and diverse secondary metabolites observed in nature. Although actinomycete bacteria are one of the primary sources of microbially derived secondary metabolites, they rarely produce compounds in this biosynthetic class. The terpenoid secondary metabolites that have been discovered from actinomycetes are often in the form of biosynthetic hybrids called hybrid isoprenoids (His). His include significant structural diversity and biological activity and thus are important targets for natural product discovery. Recent screening of marine actinomycetes has led to the discovery of a new lineage that is enriched in the production of biologically active HI secondary metabolites. These strains represent a promising resource for natural product discovery and provide unique opportunities to study the evolutionary history and ecological functions of an unusual group of secondary metabolites.

Gontang, EA, Gaudencio SP, Fenical W, Jensen PR.  2010.  Sequence-Based Analysis of Secondary-Metabolite Biosynthesis in Marine Actinobacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 76:2487-2499.   10.1128/aem.02852-09   AbstractWebsite

A diverse collection of 60 marine-sediment-derived Actinobacteria representing 52 operational taxonomic units was screened by PCR for genes associated with secondary-metabolite biosynthesis. Three primer sets were employed to specifically target adenylation domains associated with nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) and ketosynthase (KS) domains associated with type I modular, iterative, hybrid, and enediyne polyketide synthases (PKSs). In total, two-thirds of the strains yielded a sequence-verified PCR product for at least one of these biosynthetic types. Genes associated with enediyne biosynthesis were detected in only two genera, while 88% of the ketosynthase sequences shared greatest homology with modular PKSs. Positive strains included representatives of families not traditionally associated with secondary-metabolite production, including the Corynebacteriaceae, Gordoniaceae, Intrasporangiaceae, and Micrococcaceae. In four of five cases where phylogenetic analyses of KS sequences revealed close evolutionary relationships to genes associated with experimentally characterized biosynthetic pathways, secondary-metabolite production was accurately predicted. Sequence clustering patterns were used to provide an estimate of PKS pathway diversity and to assess the biosynthetic richness of individual strains. The detection of highly similar KS sequences in distantly related strains provided evidence of horizontal gene transfer, while control experiments designed to amplify KS sequences from Salinispora arenicola strain CNS-205, for which a genome sequence is available, led to the detection of 70% of the targeted PKS pathways. The results provide a bioinformatic assessment of secondary-metabolite biosynthetic potential that can be applied in the absence of fully assembled pathways or genome sequences. The rapid identification of strains that possess the greatest potential to produce new secondary metabolites along with those that produce known compounds can be used to improve the process of natural-product discovery by providing a method to prioritize strains for fermentation studies and chemical analysis.

Meyer, SW, Mordhorst TF, Lee C, Jensen PR, Fenical W, Kock M.  2010.  Penilumamide, a novel lumazine peptide isolated from the marine-derived fungus, Penicillium sp CNL-338. Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 8:2158-2163.   10.1039/b910629d   AbstractWebsite

A novel lumazine peptide, penilumamide (1), was isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine-derived fungal strain, identified as Penicillium sp. (strain CNL-338) and the structure of the new metabolite was determined by analysis of ESI-TOF MS data combined with 1D and 2D NMR experiments.

2009
Kwon, HC, Kauffman CA, Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2009.  Marinisporolides, Polyene-Polyol Macrolides from a Marine Actinomycete of the New Genus Marinispora. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 74:675-684.   10.1021/jo801944d   AbstractWebsite

Two new polyene macrolides, marinisporolides A and B (1, 2), were isolated from the saline culture of the marine actinomycete, strain CNQ-140, identified as a member of the new marine genus Marinispora. The marinisporolides are 34-membered macrolides composed of a conjugated pentaene and several pairs of 1,3-dihydroxyl functionalities. Marinisporolide A (1) contains a bicyclic spiro-bis-tetrahydropyran ketal functionality, while marinisporolide B (2) is the corresponding hemiketal. The structures of these new compounds were assigned by combined spectral and chemical methods including extensive 2D NMR experiments and correlations of (13)C NMR data with Kishi's Universal NMR Database. Chemical modifications, including methanolysis, acetonide formation, and application of the modified Mosher method, provided the full stereostructures of these molecules. Three additional macrolides, marinisporolides C-E (3-5), which are olefin geometric isomers of marinisporolide A (1), were also isolated and their structures defined. Under room light, marinisporolides A and B readily photoisomerize to C-E indicating that they are most likely produced by photochemical conversion during the cultivation or isolation procedures. Although polyenes, marinisporolides A (1) and B (2) showed weak to no antifungal activity against Candida albicans.

2008
Hughes, CC, Prieto-Davo A, Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2008.  The marinopyrroles, antibiotics of an unprecedented structure class from a marine Streptomyces sp. Organic Letters. 10:629-631.   10.1021/ol702952n   AbstractWebsite

Cultivation of an obligate marine Streptomyces strain has furnished the marinopyrroles A and B, densely halogenated, axially chiral metabolites that contain an uncommon bispyrrole structure. X-ray analysis of marinopyrrole B showed that the natural product exists as an atropoenantiomer with the M-configuration. Though configurationally stable at room temperature, M(-)-marinopyrrole A can be racemized at elevated temperatures to yield the non-natural P-(+)-atropo-enantiomer. The marinopyrroles possess potent antibiotic activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Schultz, AW, Oh DC, Carney JR, Williamson RT, Udwary DW, Jensen PR, Gould SJ, Fenical W, Moore BS.  2008.  Biosynthesis and structures of cyclomarins and cyclomarazines, prenylated cyclic peptides of marine actinobacterial origin. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 130:4507-4516.   10.1021/ja711188x   AbstractWebsite

Two new diketopiperazine dipeptides, cyclomarazines A and B, were isolated and characterized along with the new cyclic heptapeptide cyclomarin D from the marine bacterium Salinispora arenicola CNS-205. These structurally related cyclic peptid es each contain modified amino acid residues, including derivatives of N-(1,1-dimethylallyl)-tryptophan and delta-hydroxyleucine, which are common in the di- and heptapeptide series. Stable isotope incorporation studies in Streptomyces sp. CNB-982, which was first reported to produce the cyclomarin anti-inflammatory agents, illuminated the biosynthetic building blocks associated with the major metabolite cyclomarin A, signifying that this marine microbial peptide is nonribosomally derived largely from nonproteinogenic amino acid residues. DNA sequence analysis of the 5.8 Mb S. arenicola circular genome and PCR-targeted gene inactivation experiments identified the 47 kb cyclomarin/cyclomarazine biosynthetic gene cluster (cym) harboring 23 open reading frames. The cym locus is dominated by the 23 358 bp cymA, which encodes a 7-module nonribosomal pepticle synthetase (NRPS) responsible for assembly of the full-length cyclomarin heptapeptides as well as the truncated cyclomarazine dipeptides. The unprecedented biosynthetic feature of the megasynthetase CymA to synthesize differently sized peptides in vivo may be triggered by the level of P oxidation of the priming tryptophan residue, which is oxidized in the cyclomarin series and unoxidized in the cyclomarazines. Biosynthesis of the N-(1;1-dimethyl-2,3-epoxypropyl)-beta-hydroxytryptophan residue of cyclomarin A was further illuminated through gene inactivation experiments, which suggest that the tryptophan residue is reverse prenylated by CymD prior to release of the cyclic peptide from the CymA megasynthetase, whereas the cytochrome P450 CymV installs the epoxide group on the isoprene of cyclomarin C post-NRPS assembly. Last, the novel amino acid residue 2-amino-3,5-dimethylhex-4-enoic acid in the cyclomarin series was shown by bioinformatics and stable isotope experiments to derive from a new pathway involving condensation of isobutyralclehyde and pyruvate followed by S-adenosylmethionine methylation. Assembly of this unsaturated, branched amino acid is unexpectedly related to the degradation of the environmental pollutant 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid.

2007
Udwary, DW, Zeigler L, Asolkar RN, Singan V, Lapidus A, Fenical W, Jensen PR, Moore BS.  2007.  Genome sequencing reveals complex secondary metabolome in the marine actinomycete Salinispora tropica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 104:10376-10381.   10.1073/pnas.0700962104   AbstractWebsite

Recent fermentation studies have identified actinomycetes of the marine-dwelling genus Salinispora as prolific natural product producers. To further evaluate their biosynthetic potential, we sequenced the 5,183,331-bp S. tropica CNB-440 circular genome and analyzed all identifiable secondary natural product gene clusters. Our analysis shows that S. tropica dedicates a large percentage of its genome (approximate to 9.9%) to natural product assembly, which is greater than previous Streptomyces genome sequences as well as other natural product-producing actinomycetes. The S. tropica genome features polyketide synthase systems of every known formally classified family, nonribosomal peptide synthetases, and several hybrid clusters. Although a few clusters appear to encode molecules previously identified in Streptomyces species, the majority of the 17 biosynthetic loci are novel. Specific chemical information about putative and observed natural product molecules is presented and discussed. In addition, our bioinformatic analysis not only was critical for the structure elucidation of the polyene macrolactam salinilactam A, but its structural analysis aided the genome assembly of the highly repetitive slm loci. This study firmly establishes the genus Salinispora as a rich source of drug-like molecules and importantly reveals the powerful interplay between genomic analysis and traditional natural product isolation studies.

Williams, PG, Miller ED, Asolkar RN, Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2007.  Arenicolides A-C, 26-membered ring macrolides from the marine actinomycete Salinispora arenicola. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 72:5025-5034.   10.1021/jo061878x   AbstractWebsite

Chemical evaluation of the saline fermentation broth of several strains of the obligate marine actinomycete Salinispora arenicola has led to the identification of three new macrolide polyketides designated arenicolides A-C (1-3). The planar structures, elucidated via spectroscopic and chemical methods, consist of 26-membered polyunsaturated macrolactones containing repeating vicinal hydroxyl methoxyl moieties. The relative and absolute stereochemistries of 1-3 were assigned by a combination of J-based configurational analyses and chemical derivatization.

Puglisi, MP, Engel S, Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2007.  Antimicrobial activities of extracts from Indo-Pacific marine plants against marine pathogens and saprophytes. Marine Biology. 150:531-540.   10.1007/s00227-006-0376-3   AbstractWebsite

This study is the second of two surveys designed to systematically screen extracts from marine plants for antimicrobial effects against ecologically relevant marine microorganisms, and to compare results on a geographical basis. In the preceding survey, extracts from tropical Atlantic marine algae and seagrasses were screened in growth inhibition assays against the pathogenic fungus Lindra thalassiae, the saprophytic fungus Dendryphiella salina, the saprophytic stramenopiles, Halophytophthora spinosa and Schizochytrium aggregatum, and the pathogenic bacterium Pseudoaltermonas bacteriolytica. In this study, the same assay microorganisms were used to examine the antimicrobial effects of lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from 54 species of marine algae and two species of seagrasses collected from Indo-Pacific reef habitats. Overall, 95% of all species surveyed in this study yielded extracts that were active against one or more, and 77% yielded extracts that were active against two or more assay microorganisms. Broad-spectrum activity against three or four assay microbes was observed in the extracts from 50 to 21% of all species, respectively. Extracts from the green alga Bryopsis pennata and the red alga Portieria hornemannii inhibited the growth of all assay microorganisms. Given that antimicrobial activity was prevalent among extracts of Indo-Pacific marine plants, it is interesting to note that the inhibitory effects of each extract varied considerably between the assay microorganisms. Overall, H. spinosa and D. salina were the most susceptible while L. thalassiae, S. aggregatum, and P. bacteriolytica were the most resistant to the extracts tested. These results provide good evidence that antimicrobial chemical defenses are widespread among Indo-Pacific marine plants. Further, the activity profiles of plant extracts suggest that antimicrobial secondary metabolites can have pathogen-selective or broad-spectrum effects. To confirm these results, chemical studies will be needed to isolate and characterize the compounds responsible for the observed antimicrobial activities.

Williams, PG, Asolkar RN, Kondratyuk T, Pezzuto JM, Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2007.  Saliniketals A and B, bicyclic polyketides from the marine actinomycete Salinispora arenicola. Journal of Natural Products. 70:83-88.   10.1021/np0604580   AbstractWebsite

An extensive study of the secondary metabolites produced by several strains of the marine actinomycete Salinispora arenicola has led to the isolation of two unusual bicyclic polyketides, saliniketals A and B (1, 2). The structures, which contain a new 1,4-dimethyl-2,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-yl ring, were assigned mainly by 2D NMR spectroscopic methods. Unexpectedly, chemical derivatization of saliniketal A with Mosher's acid chloride resulted in a functional group interconversion of an unsaturated primary amide to the corresponding nitrile in a quantitative yield under unusually mild conditions. Saliniketals A and B were found to inhibit ornithine decarboxylase induction, an important target for the chemoprevention of cancer, with IC50 values of 1.95 +/- 0.37 and 7.83 +/- 1.2 mu g/mL, respectively.

Oh, DC, Kauffman CA, Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2007.  Induced production of emericellamides A and B from the marine-derived fungus Emericella sp in competing co-culture. Journal of Natural Products. 70:515-520.   10.1021/np060381f   AbstractWebsite

Induction of the production of emericellamides A and B (1, 2), by the marine-derived fungus Emericella sp., was observed during co-culture with the marine actinomycete Salinispora arenicola. The planar structures of these new cyclic depsipeptides, which incorporate 3-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyldecanoic acid and 3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trimethyldodecanoic acid, were assigned by combined chemical and spectral methods. The absolute configurations of the amino acids, and those of the chiral centers on the side chain, were established by application of the Marfey's method, by J-based configuration analysis, and by application of the modified Mosher method. Emericellamides A and B show modest antibacterial activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with MIC values of 3.8 and 6.0 mu M, respectively.

2006
Cho, JY, Kwon HC, Williams PG, Kauffman CA, Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2006.  Actinofuranones A and B, polyketides from a marine-derived bacterium related to the genus Streptomyces (Actinomycetales). Journal of Natural Products. 69:425-428.   10.1021/np050402q   AbstractWebsite

Two new polyketides, actinofuranones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the culture extract of a marine-derived Streptomyces strain designated CNQ766. The structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by interpretation of NMR and other spectroscopic data and by chemical derivatization. The relative stereochemistries of these new molecules were assigned on the basis of analysis of NOE data and vicinal H-1-H-1 coupling constants, while the absolute configurations of the asymmetric centers were determined using the modified Mosher's method.

Oh, DC, Williams PG, Kauffman CA, Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2006.  Cyanosporasides A and B, chloro- and cyano-cyclopenta a indene glycosides from the marine actinomycete "Salinispora pacifica". Organic Letters. 8:1021-1024.   10.1021/ol052686b   AbstractWebsite

Two structurally novel cyclopenta[a]indene glycosides, cyanosporasides A and B (1 and 2) have been isolated from the culture broth of a new species of the obligate marine actinomycete genus Salinispora. The structures and absolute stereochemistries of these compounds were determined by spectral and chemical methods. The cyanosporasides possess a new 3-keto-pyranohexose sugar as well as a cyano- and chloro-substituted cyclopenta[a]indene ring system. The cyanosporasides are proposed to be cyclization products of an enediyne precursor.

Fenical, W, Jensen PR.  2006.  Developing a new resource for drug discovery: marine actinomycete bacteria. Nature Chemical Biology. 2:666-673.   10.1038/nchembio841   AbstractWebsite

Natural products are both a fundamental source of new chemical diversity and an integral component of today's pharmaceutical compendium. Yet interest in natural-product drug discovery has waned, in part owing to diminishing returns from traditional resources such as soil bacteria. The oceans cover 70% of the Earth's surface and harbor most of the planet's biodiversity. Although marine plants and invertebrates have received considerable attention as a resource for natural-product discovery, the microbiological component of this diversity remains relatively unexplored. Recent studies have revealed that select groups of marine actinomycetes are a robust source of new natural products. Members of the genus Salinispora have proven to be a particularly rich source of new chemical structures, including the potent proteasome inhibitor salinosporamide A, and other distinct groups are yielding new classes of terpenoids, amino acid-derived metabolites and polyene macrolides. The continued development of improved cultivation methods and technologies for accessing deep-sea environments promises to provide access to this significant new source of chemical diversity.

Engel, S, Puglisi MP, Jensen PR, Fenical W.  2006.  Antimicrobial activities of extracts from tropical Atlantic marine plants against marine pathogens and saprophytes. Marine Biology. 149:991-1002.   10.1007/s00227-006-0264-x   AbstractWebsite

Studies investigating disease resistance in marine plants have indicated that secondary metabolites may have important defensive functions against harmful marine microorganisms. The goal of this study was to systematically screen extracts from marine plants for antimicrobial effects against marine pathogens and saprophytes. Lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts from species of 49 marine algae and 3 seagrasses collected in the tropical Atlantic were screened for antimicrobial activity against five ecologically relevant marine microorganisms from three separate kingdoms. These assay microbes consisted of the pathogenic fungus Lindra thalassiae, the saprophytic fungus Dendryphiella salina, the saprophytic stramenopiles, Halophytophthora spinosa and Schizochytrium aggregatum, and the pathogenic bacterium Pseudoaltermonas bacteriolytica. Overall, 90% of all species surveyed yielded extracts that were active against one or more, and 77% yielded extracts that were active against two or more assay microorganisms. Broad-spectrum activity against three or four assay microorganisms was observed in the extracts from 48 and 27% of all species, respectively. The green algae Halimeda copiosa and Penicillus capitatus (Chlorophyta) were the only species to yield extracts active against all assay microorganisms. Among all assay microorganisms, both fungi were the most resistant to the extracts tested, with less than 21% of all extracts inhibiting the growth of either L. thalassiae or D. salina. In contrast, over half of all lipophylic extracts were active against the stramenopiles H. spinosa and S. aggregatum, and the bacterium P. bacteriolytica. Growth sensitivity to hydrophilic extracts varied considerably between individual assay microorganisms. While 48% of all hydrophilic extracts were active against H. spinosa, 27% were active against P. bacteriolytica, and only 14% were active against S. aggregatum. Overall, more lipophilic extracts inhibited microbial growth than hydrophilic extracts. The variability observed in the antimicrobial effects of individual extracts against each assay microorganism reflects the importance of choosing appropriate test microbes in assays from which ecologically relevant information is sought. Results from this survey demonstrate that antimicrobial activities are prevalent among extracts from marine algae and seagrasses, suggesting that antimicrobial chemical defenses are widespread among marine plants.