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Agarwal, V, Blanton JM, Podell S, Taton A, Schorn MA, Busch J, Lin Z, Schmidt EW, Jensen PR, Paul VJ, Biggs JS, Golden JW, Allen EE, Moore BS.  2017.  Metagenomic discovery of polybrominated diphenyl ether biosynthesis by marine sponges. Nat Chem Biol. advance online publication: Nature Publishing Group, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited. All Rights Reserved.   10.1038/nchembio.2330   Abstract

Naturally produced polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) pervade the marine environment and structurally resemble toxic man-made brominated flame retardants. PBDEs bioaccumulate in marine animals and are likely transferred to the human food chain. However, the biogenic basis for PBDE production in one of their most prolific sources, marine sponges of the order Dysideidae, remains unidentified. Here, we report the discovery of PBDE biosynthetic gene clusters within sponge-microbiome-associated cyanobacterial endosymbionts through the use of an unbiased metagenome-mining approach. Using expression of PBDE biosynthetic genes in heterologous cyanobacterial hosts, we correlate the structural diversity of naturally produced PBDEs to modifications within PBDE biosynthetic gene clusters in multiple sponge holobionts. Our results establish the genetic and molecular foundation for the production of PBDEs in one of the most abundant natural sources of these molecules, further setting the stage for a metagenomic-based inventory of other PBDE sources in the marine environment.

Ahmed, L, Jensen PR, Freel KC, Brown R, Jones AL, Kim BY, Goodfellow M.  2013.  Salinispora pacifica sp nov., an actinomycete from marine sediments. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology. 103:1069-1078.   10.1007/s10482-013-9886-4   AbstractWebsite

A polyphasic analysis was carried out to clarify the taxonomic status of four marine actinomycete strains that share a phylogenetic relationship and phenotypic characteristics with the genus Salinispora. These strains formed a distinct lineage within the Salinispora 16S rRNA and gyrB trees and were found to possess a range of phenotypic properties and DNA: DNA hybridization values that distinguished them from the type strains of the two validly named species in this genus, Salinispora tropica (CNB-440(T), ATCC BAA-916(T)) and Salinispora arenicola (CNH-643(T), ATCC BAA-917(T)). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data support this conclusion. It is proposed that the strains be designated as Salinispora pacifica sp. nov., the type strain of which is CNR-114(T) (DSMZ YYYYT = KACC 17160(T)).

Alvarez-Mico, X, Jensen PR, Fenical W, Hughes CC.  2013.  Chlorizidine, a Cytotoxic 5H-Pyrrolo 2,1-a isoindol-5-one-Containing Alkaloid from a Marine Streptomyces sp. Organic Letters. 15:988-991.   10.1021/ol303374e   AbstractWebsite

Cultivation of an obligate marine Streptomyces strain has provided the cytotoxic natural product chlorizidine A. X-ray crystallographic analysis revealed that the metabolite is composed of a chlorinated 2,3-dihydropyrrolizine ring attached to a chlorinated 5H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one. The carbon stereocenter in the dihydropyrrolizine is S-configured. Remarkably, the 5H-pyrrolo[2,1-a]isoindol-5-one moiety has no precedence in the field of natural products. The presence of this ring system, which was demonstrated to undergo facile nucleophilic substitution reactions at the activated carbonyl group, is essential to the molecule's cytotoxicity against HCT-116 human colon cancer cells.

Amos, GCA, Awakawa T, Tuttle RN, Letzel AC, Kim MC, Kudo Y, Fenical W, Moore BS, Jensen PR.  2017.  Comparative transcriptomics as a guide to natural product discovery and biosynthetic gene cluster functionality. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114:E11121-E11130.   10.1073/pnas.1714381115   AbstractWebsite

Bacterial natural products remain an important source of new medicines. DNA sequencing has revealed that a majority of natural product biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) maintained in bacterial genomes have yet to be linked to the small molecules whose biosynthesis they encode. Efforts to discover the products of these orphan BGCs are driving the development of genome mining techniques based on the premise that many are transcriptionally silent during normal laboratory cultivation. Here, we employ comparative transcriptomics to assess BGC expression among four closely related strains of marine bacteria belonging to the genus Salinispora. The results reveal that slightly more than half of the BGCs are expressed at levels that should facilitate product detection. By comparing the expression profiles of similar gene clusters in different strains, we identified regulatory genes whose inactivation appears linked to cluster silencing. The significance of these subtle differences between expressed and silent BGCs could not have been predicted a priori and was only revealed by comparative transcriptomics. Evidence for the conservation of silent clusters among a larger number of strains for which genome sequences are available suggests they may be under different regulatory control from the expressed forms or that silencing may represent an underappreciated mechanism of gene cluster evolution. Coupling gene expression and metabolomics data established a bioinformatic link between the salinipostins and their associated BGC, while genetic manipulation established the genetic basis for this series of compounds, which were previously unknown from Salinispora pacifica.

Asolkar, RN, Jensen PR, Asolkar RN, Fenical W.  2006.  Daryamides A-C, weakly cytotoxic polyketides from a marine-derived actinomycete of the genus Streptomyces strain CNQ-085. Journal of Natural Products. 69:1756-1759.   10.1021/np0603828   AbstractWebsite

In the course of our continuing search for new antitumor-antibiotics from marine-derived actinomycete bacteria, four new cytotoxic compounds, designated as daryamides A (1), B ( 2), and C ( 3) and (2E, 4E)-7- methylocta- 2,4-dienoic acid amide (4), were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived Streptomyces strain CNQ-085. The structures of these new compounds were assigned by detailed interpretation of spectroscopic data. The relative configuration of 1 was determined by comprehensive NMR analysis, while the absolute configuration of 1 was determined as 4S,5R using the modified Mosher method. The daryamides show weak to moderate cytotoxic activity against the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116 and very weak antifungal activities against Candida albicans.

Asolkar, RN, Singh A, Jensen PR, Aalbersberg W, Carte BK, Feussner KD, Subramani R, DiPasquale A, Rheingold AL, Fenical W.  2017.  Marinocyanins, cytotoxic bromo-phenazinone meroterpenoids from a marine bacterium from the streptomycete Glade MAR4. Tetrahedron. 73:2234-2241.   10.1016/j.tet.2017.03.003   AbstractWebsite

Six cytotoxic and antimicrobial metabolites of a new bromo-phenazinone class, the marinocyanins A-F (1-6), were isolated together with the known bacterial metabolites 2-bromo-1-hydroxyphenazine (7), lavanducyanin (8, WS-9659A) and its chlorinated analog WS-9659B (9). These metabolites were purified by bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts of our MAR4 marine actinomycete strains CNS-284 and CNY-960. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic methods and marinocyanin A (1) was confirmed by crystallographic methods. The marinocyanins represent the first bromo-phenazinones with an N-isoprenoid substituent in the skeleton. Marinocyanins A-F show strong to weak cytotoxicity against HCT-116 human colon carcinoma and possess modest antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and amphotericin-resistant Candida albicans. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Asolkar, RN, Freel KC, Jensen PR, Fenical W, Kondratyuk TP, Park EJ, Pezzuto JM.  2009.  Arenamides A-C, Cytotoxic NF kappa B Inhibitors from the Marine Actinomycete Salinispora arenicola. Journal of Natural Products. 72:396-402.   10.1021/np800617a   AbstractWebsite

Three new cyclohexadepsipeptides, arenamides A-C (1-3), were isolated from the fermentation broth of a marine bacterial strain identified as Salinispora arenicola. The planar structures of these compounds were assigned by detailed interpretation of NMR and MS/MS spectroscopic data. The absolute configurations of the amino acids, and those of the chiral centers on the side chain, were established by application of the Marfey and modified Mosher methods. The effect of arenamides A and B on NF kappa B activity was studied with stably transfected 293/NF kappa B-Luc human embryonic kidney cells induced by treatment with tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Arenamides A (1) and B (2) blocked TNF-induced activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC(50) values of 3.7 and 1.7 mu M, respectively. In addition, the compounds inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) production with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moderate cytotoxicity was observed with the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116, but no cytotoxic effect was noted with cultured RAW cells. Taken together, these data suggest that the chemoprevention and anti-inflammatory characteristics of arenamides A and B warrant further investigation.