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Augustynowicz, M, Flatau PJ.  1981.  Numerical study of the sea breeze phenomena. Acta Geophysica Polonica, Warsaw. 29:117-122. AbstractWebsite

A two-dimensional, nonhydrostatic model of the sea breeze phenomena is proposed. The integration is done for 30 hr, starting from the atmosphere at rest. The preliminary results of the model include the temperature and wind fields and characteristics of the sea breeze front.

Baranowski, DB, Flatau MK, Flatau PJ, Matthews AJ.  2016.  Impact of atmospheric convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin waves on upper ocean variability. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 121:2045-2059.   10.1002/2015JD024150   Abstract

Convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) are atmospheric weather systems that propagate eastward along the equatorial wave guide with phase speeds between 11 and 14 m s−1. They are an important constituent of the convective envelope of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), for which ocean-atmosphere interactions play a vital role. Hence, ocean-atmosphere interactions within CCKWs may be important for MJO development and prediction and for tropical climate, in general. Although the atmospheric structure of CCKWs has been well studied, their impact on the underlying ocean is unknown. In this paper, the ocean-atmosphere interactions in CCKWs are investigated by a case study from November 2011 during the CINDY/DYNAMO field experiment, using in situ oceanographic measurements from an ocean glider. The analysis is then extended to a 15 year period using precipitation data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and surface fluxes from the TropFlux analysis. A methodology is developed to calculate trajectories of CCKWs. CCKW events are strongly controlled by the MJO, with twice as many CCKWs observed during the convectively active phase of the MJO compared to the suppressed phase. Coherent ocean-atmosphere interaction is observed during the passage of a CCKW, which lasts approximately 4 days at any given longitude. Surface wind speed and latent heat flux are enhanced, leading to a transient suppression of the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature (SST) and a sustained decrease in bulk SST of 0.1°C. Given that a typical composite mean MJO SST anomaly is of the order of 0.3°C, and more than one CCKW can occur during the active phase of a single MJO event, the oceanographic impact of CCKWs is of major importance to the MJO cycle.

Baranowski, DB, Flatau PJ, Chen S, Black PG.  2014.  Upper ocean response to the passage of two sequential typhoons. Ocean Science. 10:559-570.   10.5194/os-10-559-2014   AbstractWebsite

The atmospheric wind stress forcing and the oceanic response are examined for the period between 15 September 2008 and 6 October 2008, during which two typhoons - Hagupit and Jangmi - passed through the same region of the western Pacific at Saffir-Simpson intensity categories one and three, respectively. A three-dimensional oceanic mixed layer model is compared against the remote sensing observations as well as high-repetition Argo float data. Numerical model simulations suggested that magnitude of the cooling caused by the second typhoon, Jangmi, would have been significantly larger if the ocean had not already been influenced by the first typhoon, Hagupit. It is estimated that the temperature anomaly behind Jangmi would have been about 0.4 degrees C larger in both cold wake and left side of the track. The numerical simulations suggest that the magnitude and position of Jangmi's cold wake depends on the precursor state of the ocean as well as lag between typhoons. Based on sensitivity experiments we show that temperature anomaly difference between "single typhoon" and "two typhoons" as well as magnitude of the cooling strongly depends on the distance between them. The amount of kinetic energy and coupling with inertial oscillations are important factors for determining magnitude of the temperature anomaly behind moving typhoons. This paper indicates that studies of ocean-atmosphere tropical cyclone interaction will benefit from denser, high-repetition Argo float measurements.

Baranowski, DB, Flatau MK, Flatau PJ, Matthews AJ.  2016.  Phase locking between atmospheric convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin waves and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent. Geophysical Research Letters. 43:8269-8276.   10.1002/2016gl069602   AbstractWebsite

Convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) are a major component of the tropical atmospheric circulation, propagating eastward around the equatorial belt. Here we show that there are scale interactions between CCKWs and the diurnal cycle over the Maritime Continent. In particular, CCKW packets that pass a base point in the eastern Indian Ocean at 90 degrees E between 0600 and 0900UTC subsequently arrive over Sumatra in phase with the diurnal cycle of convection. As the distance between Sumatra and Borneo is equal to the distance traveled by a CCKW in 1day, these waves are then also in phase with the diurnal cycle over Borneo. Consequently, this subset of CCKWs has a precipitation signal up to a factor of 3 larger than CCKWs that arrive at other times of the day and a 40% greater chance of successfully traversing the Maritime Continent.

Baranowski, DB, Flatau MK, Flatau PJ, Schmidt JM.  2017.  Multiple and spin off initiation of atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin waves. Climate Dynamics. 49:2991-3009.   10.1007/s00382-016-3487-7   AbstractWebsite

A novel atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin wave trajectories database, derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation data, is used to investigate initiation of sequential Kelvin wave events. Based on the analysis of beginnings of trajectories from years 1998-2012 it is shown that sequential event initiations can be divided into two distinct categories: multiple initiations and spin off initiations, both of which involve interactions with ocean surface and upper ocean temperature variability. The results of composite analysis of the 83 multiple Kelvin wave initiations show that the local thermodynamic forcing related to the diurnal sea surface temperature variability is responsible for sequential Kelvin wave development. The composite analysis of 91 spin off Kelvin wave initiations shows that the dynamic forcing is a dominant effect and the local thermodynamic forcing is secondary. Detail case studies of both multiple and spin off initiations confirm statistical analysis. A multiple initiation occurs in the presence of the high upper ocean diurnal cycle and a spin off initiation results from both dynamic and local thermodynamic processes. The dynamic forcing is related to increased wind speed and latent heat flux likely associated with an off equatorial circulation. In addition a theoretical study of the sequential Kelvin waves is performed using a shallow water model. Finally, conceptual models of these two types of initiations are proposed.

Collins, WD, Valero FPJ, Flatau PJ, Lubin D, Grassl H, Pilewskie P.  1996.  Radiative effects of convection in the tropical Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 101:14999-15012.   10.1029/95jd02534   AbstractWebsite

The radiative effects of tropical clouds at the tropopause and the ocean surface have been estimated by using in situ measurements from the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). The effect of clouds is distinguished from the radiative effects of the surrounding atmosphere by calculating the shortwave and longwave cloud forcing. These terms give the reduction in insolation and the increase in absorption of terrestrial thermal emission associated with clouds. At the tropopause the shortwave and longwave cloud forcing are nearly equal and opposite, even on daily timescales. Therefore the net effect of an ensemble of convective clouds is small compared to other radiative terms in the surface-tropospheric heat budget. This confirms the statistical cancellation of cloud forcing observed in Earth radiation budget measurements from satellites. At the surface the net effect of clouds is to reduce the radiant energy absorbed by the ocean. Under deep convective clouds the diurnally averaged reduction exceeds 150 W m(-2). The divergence of flux in the cloudy atmosphere can be estimated from the difference in cloud forcing at the surface and tropopause. The CEPEX observations show that the atmospheric cloud forcing is nearly equal and opposite to the surface forcing. Based upon the frequency of convection, the atmospheric forcing approaches 100 W m(-2) when the surface temperature is 303 K. The cloud forcing is closely related to the frequency of convective cloud systems. This relation is used in conjunction with cloud population statistics derived from satellite to calculate the change in surface cloud forcing with sea surface temperature. The net radiative cooling of the surface by clouds increases at a rate of 20 W m(-2)K(-1)during the CEPEX observing period.

Collins, WD, Bucholtz A, Flatau P, Lubin D, Valero FPJ, Weaver CP, Pilewski P.  2000.  Determination of surface heating by convective cloud systems in the central equatorial Pacific from surface and satellite measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 105:14807-14821.   10.1029/2000jd900109   AbstractWebsite

The heating of the ocean surface by longwave radiation from convective clouds has been estimated using measurements from the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). The ratio of the surface longwave cloud forcing to the cloud radiative forcing on the total atmospheric column is parameterized by the f factor. The f factor is a measure of the partitioning of the cloud radiative effect between the surface and the troposphere. Estimates of the f factor have been obtained by combining simultaneous observations from ship, aircraft, and satellite instruments. The cloud forcing near the ocean surface is determined from radiometers on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft and the R/V John Vickers. The longwave cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere has been estimated from data obtained from the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite GMS 4. A new method for estimating longwave fluxes from satellite narrowband radiances is described. The method is based upon calibrating the satellite radiances against narrowband and broadband infrared measurements from the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft. The average value of f derived from the surface and satellite observations of convective clouds is 0.15 +/- 0.02. The area-mean top-of-atmosphere longwave forcing by convective clouds in the region 10 degrees S-10 degrees N, 160 degrees E-160 degrees W is 40 W/m(2) during CEPEX. Those results indicate that the surface longwave forcing by convective clouds was approximately 5 W/m(2) in the central equatorial Pacific and that this forcing is the smallest radiative component of the surface energy budget.

Conant, WC, Seinfeld JH, Wang J, Carmichael GR, Tang YH, Uno I, Flatau PJ, Markowicz KM, Quinn PK.  2003.  A model for the radiative forcing during ACE-Asia derived from CIRPAS Twin Otter and R/V Ronald H. Brown data and comparison with observations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 108   10.1029/2002jd003260   AbstractWebsite

Vertical profiles of aerosol size, composition, and hygroscopic behavior from Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration R/V Ronald H. Brown observations are used to construct a generic optical model of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) aerosol. The model accounts for sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt, and mineral dust. The effects of relative humidity and mixing assumptions (internal versus external, coating of dust by pollutants) are explicitly accounted for. The aerosol model is integrated with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model to compute direct radiative forcing in the solar spectrum. The predicted regional average surface aerosol forcing efficiency (change in clear-sky radiative flux per unit aerosol optical depth at 500 nm) during the ACE-Asia intensive period is -65 Wm(-2) for pure dust and -60 Wm(-2) for pure pollution aerosol (clear skies). A three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model (Chemical Weather Forecast System (CFORS)) is used with the radiative transfer model to derive regional radiative forcing during ACE-Asia in clear and cloudy skies. Net regional solar direct radiative forcing during the 5-15 April 2001 dust storm period is -3 Wm(-2) at the top of the atmosphere and -17 Wm(-2) at the surface for the region from 20degreesN to 50degreesN and 100degreesE to 150degreesE when the effects of clouds on the direct forcing are included. The model fluxes and forcing efficiencies are found to be in good agreement with surface radiometric observations made aboard the R. H. Brown. Mean cloud conditions are found to moderate the top of atmosphere (TOA) radiative forcing by a factor of similar to3 compared to clear-sky calculations, but atmospheric absorption by aerosol is not strongly affected by clouds in this study. The regional aerosol effect at the TOA ("climate forcing") of -3 Wm(-2) is comparable in magnitude, but of opposite sign, to present-day anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. The forcing observed during ACE-Asia is similar in character to that seen during other major field experiments downwind of industrial and biomass black carbon sources (e.g., the Indian Ocean Experiment (INDOEX)), insofar as the primary effect of aerosol is to redistribute solar heating from the surface to the atmosphere.

Cotton, WR, Walko RL, Costignan KR, Flatau PJ, Pielke RA.  1993.  Using Regional Atmospheric Modeling System n the Large Eddy Simulation mode: From in homogenous surfaces to cirrus clouds. Large eddy simulation of complex engineering and geophysical flows. ( Galperin B, Orszag SA, Eds.).:369-398., Cambridge [England]; New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press Abstract
Draine, BT, Flatau PJ.  1994.  Discrete-Dipole Approximation for Scattering Calculations. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision. 11:1491-1499.   10.1364/josaa.11.001491   AbstractWebsite

The discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for scattering calculations, including the relationship between the DDA and other methods, is reviewed. Computational considerations, i.e., the use of complex-conjugate gradient algorithms and fast-Fourier-transform methods, are discussed. We test the accuracy of the DDA by using the DDA to compute scattering and absorption by isolated, homogeneous spheres as well as by targets consisting of two contiguous spheres. It is shown that, for dielectric materials (Absolute value of m less than or similar to 2), the DDA permits calculations of scattering and absorption that are accurate to within a few percent.

Draine, BT, Flatau PJ.  2008.  Discrete-dipole approximation for periodic targets: theory and tests. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision. 25:2693-2703.   10.1364/josaa.25.002693   AbstractWebsite

The discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) is a powerful method for calculating absorption and scattering by targets that have sizes smaller than or comparable to the wavelength of the incident radiation. The DDA can be extended to targets that are singly or doubly periodic. We generalize the scattering amplitude matrix and the 4 x 4 Mueller matrix to describe scattering by singly and doubly periodic targets and show how these matrices can be calculated using the DDA. The accuracy of DDA calculations using the open-source code DDSCAT is demonstrated by comparison with exact results for infinite cylinders and infinite slabs. A method for using the DDA solution to obtain fields within and near the target is presented, with results shown for infinite slabs. (C) 2008 Optical Society of America

Flatau, M, Flatau PJ, Phoebus P, Niller PP.  1997.  The feedback between equatorial convection and local radiative and evaporative processes: The implications for intraseasonal oscillations. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 54:2373-2386.   10.1175/1520-0469(1997)054<2373:tfbeca>;2   AbstractWebsite

Existing theories of the Madden-Julian oscillation neglect the feedback between the modification of sea surface temperature by the convection and development of a convective cluster itself. The authors show that the convection-generated SST gradient plays an important role in cluster propagation and development. The relative importance of radiative and evaporative fluxes in SST regulation is also discussed. Various Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment and Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment observation platforms are used to estimate the effects of equatorial convection on SST changes during March 1993. The data include drifting buoys and TAO-buoy array measurements, combined with the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System analyzed surface wind fields and Geostationary Meteorological Satellite cloud-top temperatures. It is shown that during the equatorial convection episode SST is decreasing under and to the west of the convective heat source due to the large wind velocities and solar flux reduction. To the east of the source, in the convergence region of a Kelvin wave, low wind speeds and high insolation cause the SST to increase. The data are used to formulate an empirical relationship between wind speed and the 24-h SST change on the equator. Although formulated in terms of wind speed, this relationship implicitly includes radiative effects. This equation is then used in a global circulation model to examine the effect of SST feedback on the behavior of equatorial convection. A series of experiments is performed using an R15 general circulation model of the ''aquaplanet'' with a zonally symmetric SST distribution. In the case with fixed SSTs, equatorial wind fluctuations have the character of waves propagating around the globe with a phase speed of about 20 m s(-1). When the effect of SST modification is included, the fluctuations slow down and become more organized. In addition, a 40-60-day peak appears in the spectral analysis of equatorial precipitation.

Flatau, MK, Flatau PJ, Schmidt J, Kiladis GN.  2003.  Delayed onset of the 2002 Indian monsoon. Geophysical Research Letters. 30   10.1029/2003gl017434   AbstractWebsite

[1] We show that there is a set of dynamical predictors, which facilitate forecasting of a delayed monsoon onset. The main dynamical contributor is the early May propagation of the "bogus onset Intraseasonal Oscillation'' which triggers a set of events precluding the climatological monsoon onset. We analyze in detail the 2002 monsoon onset and show that it followed a pattern described in our previous study. We notice that the 2003 monsoon onset followed very similar pattern and was delayed.

Flatau, PJ, Pielke RA, Cotton WR.  1988.  Application of symbolic algebra to the generation of coordinate transformations . Environmental Software. 3:158-160. Abstract

In this paper we present tools for automatic generation of generalized (variable and terrain-following) coordinate transformations and its use in numerical models of atmospheric flows. Such methodology should be competitive with the more cornraonly employed nested grid schemes. We discuss the symbolic (computer) algebra program for analytical calculation of Christoffel symbols, metric tensor and other geometrical objects describing a transformation. An example, related to the numerical modeling of mesoscale flows, is given. This example shows how coupled terrain-following m~d stretching transformation can be easily created. The possible application of such methodology in numerical modeling of air pollution on cirrus clouds is briefly discussed.

Flatau, PJ, Flatau M, Zaneveld JRV, Mobley CD.  2000.  Remote sensing of bubble clouds in sea water. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 126:2511-2523.   10.1256/smsqj.56807   AbstractWebsite

We report on the influence of submerged bubble clouds on the remote-sensing properties of water. We show that the optical effect of bubbles on radiative transfer and on the estimate of the ocean colour is significant. We present a global map of the volume fraction of air in water derived from daily wind speed data. This map. together with the parametrization of the microphysical properties, shows the possible significance of bubble clouds on the albedo to incoming solar energy.

Flatau, PJ, Walko RL, Cotton WR.  1992.  Polynomial Fits to Saturation Vapor-Pressure. Journal of Applied Meteorology. 31:1507-1513.   10.1175/1520-0450(1992)031<1507:pftsvp>;2   AbstractWebsite

The authors describe eighth- and sixth-order polynomial fits to Wexler's and Hyland-Wexler's saturation-vapor-pressure expressions. Fits are provided in both least-squares and relative-error norms. Error analysis is presented. The authors show that their method is faster in comparison with the reference expressions when implemented on a CRAY-YMP.

Flatau, PJ, Draine BT.  2012.  Fast near field calculations in the discrete dipole approximation for regular rectilinear grids. Optics Express. 20:1247-1252.   10.1364/OE.20.001247   AbstractWebsite

A near-field calculation of light electric field intensity inside and in the vicinity of a scattering particle is discussed in the discrete dipole approximation. A fast algorithm is presented for gridded data. This algorithm is based on one matrix times vector multiplication performed with the three dimensional fast Fourier transform. It is shown that for moderate and large light scattering near field calculations the computer time required is reduced in comparison to some of the other methods. (C) 2012 Optical Society of America

Flatau, PJ, Fuller KA, Mackowski DW.  1993.  Scattering by 2 Spheres in Contact - Comparisons between Discrete-Dipole Approximation and Modal-Analysis. Applied Optics. 32:3302-3305.   10.1364/AO.32.003302   AbstractWebsite

This paper applies two different techniques to the problem of scattering by two spheres in contact: modal analysis, which is an exact method, and the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA). Good agreement is obtained, which further demonstrates the utility of the DDA to scattering problems for irregular particles. The choice of the DDA polarizability scheme is discussed in detail. We show that the lattice dispersion relation provides excellent improvement over the Clausius-Mossoti polarizability parameterization.

Flatau, PJ, Stephens GL, Draine BT.  1990.  Light-Scattering by Rectangular Solids in the Discrete-Dipole Approximation - a New Algorithm Exploiting the Block-Toeplitz Structure. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision. 7:593-600.   10.1364/josaa.7.000593   AbstractWebsite

The discrete-dipole approximation is used to study the problem of light scattering by homogeneous rectangular particles. The structure of the discrete-dipole approximation is investigated, and the matrix formed by this approximation is identified to be a symmetric, block-Toeplitz matrix. Special properties of block-Toeplitz arrays are explored, and an efficient algorithm to solve the dipole scattering problem is provided. Timings for conjugate gradient, Linpack, and block-Toeplitz solvers are given; the results indicate the advantages of the block-Toeplitz algorithm. A practical test of the algorithm was performed on a system of 1400 dipoles, which corresponds to direct inversion of an 8400 × 8400 real matrix. A short discussion of the limitations of the discrete-dipole approximation is provided, and some results for cubes and parallelepipeds are given. We briefly consider how the algorithm may be improved further.

Flatau, PJ, Draine BT.  2014.  Light scattering by hexagonal columns in the discrete dipole approximation. Optics Express. 22:21834-21846.   10.1364/oe.22.021834   AbstractWebsite

Scattering by infinite hexagonal ice prisms is calculated using Maxwell's equations in the discrete dipole approximation for size parameters x = pi D/lambda up to x = 400 (D = prism diameter). Birefringence is included in the calculations. Applicability of the geometric optics approximation is investigated. Excellent agreement between wave optics and geometric optics is observed for large size parameter in the outer part of the 22 degree halo feature. For smaller ice crystals halo broadening is predicted, and there is appreciable "spillover" of the halo into shadow scattering angles < 22 degrees. Ways to retrieve ice crystal sizes are suggested based on the full width at half-maximum of the halo, the power at < 22deg, and the halo polarization. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America

Flatau, PJ.  2004.  Fast solvers for one dimensional light scattering in the discrete dipole approximation. Optics Express. 12:3149-3155.   10.1364/OPEX.12.003149   AbstractWebsite

In this paper we propose new algorithms for solution of light scattering on non-spherical particles using one-dimensional variant of discrete dipole approximation. We discuss recent advances in algorithms for matrices with structures in context of the discrete dipole approximation and show that it is possible to apply these advances to form non-iterative solvers and improve algorithmic complexity in case of many incoming plane parallel waves. (C) 2004 Optical Society of America.

Flatau, PJ.  1997.  Improvements in the discrete-dipole approximation method of computing scattering and absorption. Optics Letters. 22:1205-1207.   10.1364/ol.22.001205   AbstractWebsite

Improvements in complex-conjugate gradient algorithms applied to the discrete-dipole approximation are reported. It is shown that computational time is reduced by use of the stabilized version of the biconjugate gratings algorithm, with diagonal left preconditioning. (C) 1997 Optical Society of America.

Flatau, PJ.  1978.  Kinetics of Intraband Absorption and Magnetoabsorption Coefficients in Mixed Semiconductors with Composition Fluctuations. Physica Status Solidi B-Basic Research. 90:251-260.   10.1002/pssb.2220900127   AbstractWebsite

The influence of short-range ordering in a mixed semiconductor on the intraband absorption and magnetoabsorption coefficients is determined. The coefficients are shown to be temperature-dependent. Their time-evolution after changing the temperature is calculated. An experiment, permitting measurements of the degree of ordering (non-ideality) in alloys is proposed, and a numerical example for HgTe–CdTe is given.

Flatau, M, Stevens DE.  1993.  The Role of Outflow-Layer Instabilities in Tropical Cyclone Motion. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 50:1721-1733.   10.1175/1520-0469(1993)050<1721:trooli>;2   AbstractWebsite

The paper examines the role of the development of outflow-layer instabilities on the motion of tropical cyclones. The influence of barotropic instability is examined by comparing the time changes in the storm tracks with the frequencies of free, unstable barotropic modes. For intense vortices barotropic instability is shown to contribute to the slow (periods of a few days) trochoidal motion of a cyclone. The development of instability depends on the horizontal distribution and frequency of environmental forcing. The strongest response occurs when the frequency of the forcing matches the frequency of an unstable mode.

Flatau, PJ, Piskozub J, Zaneveld JRV.  1999.  Asymptotic light field in the presence of a bubble-layer. Optics Express. 5:120-124.   10.1364/OE.5.000120   AbstractWebsite

We report that the submerged microbubbles are an efficient source of diffuse radiance and may contribute to a rapid transition to the diffuse asymptotic regime. In this asymptotic regime an average cosine is easily predictable and measurable. (C) 1999 Optical Society of America.