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Flatau, MK, Talley L, Niiler PP.  2003.  The North Atlantic Oscillation, surface current velocities, and SST changes in the subpolar North Atlantic. Journal of Climate. 16:2355-2369.   10.1175/2787.1   AbstractWebsite

Changes in surface circulation in the subpolar North Atlantic are documented for the recent interannual switch in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index from positive values in the early 1990s to negative values in 1995/96. Data from Lagrangian drifters, which were deployed in the North Atlantic from 1992 to 1998, were used to compute the mean and varying surface currents. NCEP winds were used to calculate the Ekman component, allowing isolation of the geostrophic currents. The mean Ekman velocities are considerably smaller than the mean total velocities that resemble historical analyses. The northeastward flow of the North Atlantic Current is organized into three strong cores associated with topography: along the eastern boundary in Rockall Trough, in the Iceland Basin ( the subpolar front), and on the western flank of the Reykjanes Ridge (Irminger Current). The last is isolated in this Eulerian mean from the rest of the North Atlantic Current by a region of weak velocities on the east side of the Reykjanes Ridge. The drifter results during the two different NAO periods are compared with geostrophic flow changes calculated from the NASA/Pathfinder monthly gridded sea surface height (SSH) variability products and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) SST data. During the positive NAO years the northeastward flow in the North Atlantic Current appeared stronger and the circulation in the cyclonic gyre in the Irminger Basin became more intense. This was consistent with the geostrophic velocities calculated from altimetry data and surface temperature changes from AVHRR SST data, which show that during the positive NAO years, with stronger westerlies, the subpolar front was sharper and located farther east. SST gradients intensified in the North Atlantic Current, Irminger Basin, and east of the Shetland Islands during the positive NAO phase, associated with stronger currents. SST differences between positive and negative NAO years were consistent with changes in air-sea heat flux and the eastward shift of the subpolar front. SST advection, as diagnosed from the drifters, likely acted to reduce the SST differences.

Witek, ML, Flatau PJ, Teixeira J, Markowicz KM.  2011.  Numerical Investigation of Sea Salt Aerosol Size Bin Partitioning in Global Transport Models: Implications for Mass Budget and Optical Depth. Aerosol Science and Technology. 45:401-414.   10.1080/02786826.2010.541957   AbstractWebsite

In this study the importance of sea salt aerosol (SSA) size representation in a global transport model is investigated. For this purpose the Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System (NAAPS) model is employed in a number of SSA simulations. A new dry deposition velocity parameterization is implemented into NAAPS in order to more physically represent deposition processes in the model. SSA size distribution is divided into size bins using two different partition procedures: the previously used iso-log method and the iso-gradient method, which relies on size-dependence of deposition processes. The global SSA simulations are analyzed in terms of the total sea salt mass and the average SSA optical thickness. The results indicate that there is a large dependence of the total mass and average aerosol optical depth on the number of size bins used to represent the aerosol size distribution. The total SSA mass is underestimated by 20% if 2 instead of 15 (reference) size intervals are used. The average aerosol optical depth underestimation is even higher and reaches over 35%. Such large differences can have substantial implications on the accuracy of SSA radiative forcing simulations in climate models. A comparison of the two division procedures shows that the simulations with the iso-gradient intervals are more accurate than the iso-log ones if at least 6 size bins are used. This result indicates that the more physically based division scheme can offer better performance and reduce computational cost of global aerosol transport models.

Augustynowicz, M, Flatau PJ.  1981.  Numerical study of the sea breeze phenomena. Acta Geophysica Polonica, Warsaw. 29:117-122. AbstractWebsite

A two-dimensional, nonhydrostatic model of the sea breeze phenomena is proposed. The integration is done for 30 hr, starting from the atmosphere at rest. The preliminary results of the model include the temperature and wind fields and characteristics of the sea breeze front.