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Witek, ML, Flatau PJ, Quinn PK, Westphal DL.  2007.  Global sea-salt modeling: Results and validation against multicampaign shipboard measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 112   10.1029/2006jd007779   AbstractWebsite

[1] Open-ocean measurements of sea-salt concentrations from five different campaigns are used to validate the sea-salt parameterization in numerical models. The data set is unique in that it is from open-ocean shipboard measurements which alleviates typical problems associated with onshore wave breaking on land stations ( surf zone). The validity of the sea-salt parameterizations is tested by employing a global forecasting model and transport model with detailed representation of dry and wet deposition, advection and diffusion, and other physical processes. It is shown that the inclusion of these processes leads to good agreement with shipboard measurements. The correlation coefficient of measured and modeled sea-salt mass concentrations for all data points was 0.76 and varied from 0.55 to 0.84 for different experiments. Average sea-salt mass concentration was 4.6 mu g/m(3) from measurements and 7.3 mu g/m(3) from the model, for all considered experiments. It was found that model-measurements discrepancies were affected by wet deposition uncertainties but also suggested was the influence of source uncertainties in the strong wind-speed regime, lack of a wind-speed threshold for emission onset, and lack of size differentiation in applied deposition velocity. No apparent relationship between the water temperature and the measured sea-salt concentration was found in the analyzed data set.

Lelieveld, J, Berresheim H, Borrmann S, Crutzen PJ, Dentener FJ, Fischer H, Feichter J, Flatau PJ, Heland J, Holzinger R, Korrmann R, Lawrence MG, Levin Z, Markowicz KM, Mihalopoulos N, Minikin A, Ramanathan V, de Reus M, Roelofs GJ, Scheeren HA, Sciare J, Schlager H, Schultz M, Siegmund P, Steil B, Stephanou EG, Stier P, Traub M, Warneke C, Williams J, Ziereis H.  2002.  Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean. Science. 298:794-799.   10.1126/science.1075457   AbstractWebsite

The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation. In the middle troposphere, Asian and to a lesser extent North American pollution is transported from the west. Additional Asian pollution from the east, transported from the monsoon in the upper troposphere, crosses the Mediterranean tropopause, which pollutes the lower stratosphere at middle latitudes.