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Flatau, MK, Flatau PJ, Rudnick D.  2001.  The dynamics of double monsoon onsets. Journal of Climate. 14:4130-4146.   10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<4130:tdodmo>2.0.co;2   AbstractWebsite

Double monsoon onset develops when the strong convection in the Bay of Bengal is accompanied by the monsoonlike circulation and appears in the Indian Ocean in early May, which is about 3 weeks earlier than the climatological date of the onset (1 Jun). The initial "bogus onset'' is followed by the flow weakening or reversal and clear-sky and dry conditions over the monsoon region. The best example of such a phenomenon is the development of the summer monsoon in 1995, when monsoonlike perturbations that appeared in mid-May disappeared by the end of the month and were followed by a heat wave in India, delaying onset of the monsoon. The climatology of double onsets is analyzed, and it is shown that they are associated with delay of the monsoon rainfall over India. This analysis indicates that the development of bogus onsets depends on the timing of intraseasonal oscillation in the Indian Ocean and the propagation of convective episodes into the western Pacific. There is evidence that an SST evolution in the Bay of Bengal and the western Pacific plays an important role in this phenomenon. It is shown that in the case of the double monsoon onset it is possible to predict hot and dry conditions in India before the real monsoon onset. In the 32 yr of climatological data, six cases of double monsoon onset were identified.

Draine, BT, Flatau PJ.  1994.  Discrete-Dipole Approximation for Scattering Calculations. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision. 11:1491-1499.   10.1364/josaa.11.001491   AbstractWebsite

The discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for scattering calculations, including the relationship between the DDA and other methods, is reviewed. Computational considerations, i.e., the use of complex-conjugate gradient algorithms and fast-Fourier-transform methods, are discussed. We test the accuracy of the DDA by using the DDA to compute scattering and absorption by isolated, homogeneous spheres as well as by targets consisting of two contiguous spheres. It is shown that, for dielectric materials (Absolute value of m less than or similar to 2), the DDA permits calculations of scattering and absorption that are accurate to within a few percent.

Draine, BT, Flatau PJ.  2008.  Discrete-dipole approximation for periodic targets: theory and tests. Journal of the Optical Society of America a-Optics Image Science and Vision. 25:2693-2703.   10.1364/josaa.25.002693   AbstractWebsite

The discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) is a powerful method for calculating absorption and scattering by targets that have sizes smaller than or comparable to the wavelength of the incident radiation. The DDA can be extended to targets that are singly or doubly periodic. We generalize the scattering amplitude matrix and the 4 x 4 Mueller matrix to describe scattering by singly and doubly periodic targets and show how these matrices can be calculated using the DDA. The accuracy of DDA calculations using the open-source code DDSCAT is demonstrated by comparison with exact results for infinite cylinders and infinite slabs. A method for using the DDA solution to obtain fields within and near the target is presented, with results shown for infinite slabs. (C) 2008 Optical Society of America

Valero, FPJ, Collins WD, Pilewskie P, Bucholtz A, Flatau PJ.  1997.  Direct radiometric observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect over the equatorial Pacific ocean. Science. 275:1773-1776.   10.1126/science.275.5307.1773   AbstractWebsite

Airborne radiometric measurements were used to determine tropospheric profiles of the clear sky greenhouse effect. At sea surface temperatures (SSTs) larger than 300 kelvin, the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect was found to increase with SST at a rate of 13 to 15 watts per square meter per kelvin. Satellite measurements of infrared radiances and SSTs indicate that almost 52 percent of the tropical oceans between 20 degrees N and 20 degrees S are affected during all seasons. Current general circulation models suggest that the increase in the clear sky water vapor greenhouse effect with SST may have climatic effects an a planetary scale.

Collins, WD, Bucholtz A, Flatau P, Lubin D, Valero FPJ, Weaver CP, Pilewski P.  2000.  Determination of surface heating by convective cloud systems in the central equatorial Pacific from surface and satellite measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 105:14807-14821.   10.1029/2000jd900109   AbstractWebsite

The heating of the ocean surface by longwave radiation from convective clouds has been estimated using measurements from the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). The ratio of the surface longwave cloud forcing to the cloud radiative forcing on the total atmospheric column is parameterized by the f factor. The f factor is a measure of the partitioning of the cloud radiative effect between the surface and the troposphere. Estimates of the f factor have been obtained by combining simultaneous observations from ship, aircraft, and satellite instruments. The cloud forcing near the ocean surface is determined from radiometers on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft and the R/V John Vickers. The longwave cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere has been estimated from data obtained from the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite GMS 4. A new method for estimating longwave fluxes from satellite narrowband radiances is described. The method is based upon calibrating the satellite radiances against narrowband and broadband infrared measurements from the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft. The average value of f derived from the surface and satellite observations of convective clouds is 0.15 +/- 0.02. The area-mean top-of-atmosphere longwave forcing by convective clouds in the region 10 degrees S-10 degrees N, 160 degrees E-160 degrees W is 40 W/m(2) during CEPEX. Those results indicate that the surface longwave forcing by convective clouds was approximately 5 W/m(2) in the central equatorial Pacific and that this forcing is the smallest radiative component of the surface energy budget.

Flatau, MK, Flatau PJ, Schmidt J, Kiladis GN.  2003.  Delayed onset of the 2002 Indian monsoon. Geophysical Research Letters. 30   10.1029/2003gl017434   AbstractWebsite

[1] We show that there is a set of dynamical predictors, which facilitate forecasting of a delayed monsoon onset. The main dynamical contributor is the early May propagation of the "bogus onset Intraseasonal Oscillation'' which triggers a set of events precluding the climatological monsoon onset. We analyze in detail the 2002 monsoon onset and show that it followed a pattern described in our previous study. We notice that the 2003 monsoon onset followed very similar pattern and was delayed.