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Baranowski, DB, Flatau MK, Flatau PJ, Schmidt JM.  2017.  Multiple and spin off initiation of atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin waves. Climate Dynamics. 49:2991-3009.   10.1007/s00382-016-3487-7   AbstractWebsite

A novel atmospheric convectively coupled Kelvin wave trajectories database, derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation data, is used to investigate initiation of sequential Kelvin wave events. Based on the analysis of beginnings of trajectories from years 1998-2012 it is shown that sequential event initiations can be divided into two distinct categories: multiple initiations and spin off initiations, both of which involve interactions with ocean surface and upper ocean temperature variability. The results of composite analysis of the 83 multiple Kelvin wave initiations show that the local thermodynamic forcing related to the diurnal sea surface temperature variability is responsible for sequential Kelvin wave development. The composite analysis of 91 spin off Kelvin wave initiations shows that the dynamic forcing is a dominant effect and the local thermodynamic forcing is secondary. Detail case studies of both multiple and spin off initiations confirm statistical analysis. A multiple initiation occurs in the presence of the high upper ocean diurnal cycle and a spin off initiation results from both dynamic and local thermodynamic processes. The dynamic forcing is related to increased wind speed and latent heat flux likely associated with an off equatorial circulation. In addition a theoretical study of the sequential Kelvin waves is performed using a shallow water model. Finally, conceptual models of these two types of initiations are proposed.

Remiszewska, J, Flatau PJ, Markowicz KM, Reid EA, Reid JS, Witek ML.  2007.  Modulation of the aerosol absorption and single-scattering albedo due to synoptic scale and sea breeze circulations: United Arab Emirates experiment perspective. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 112   10.1029/2006jd007139   AbstractWebsite

The spectral aerosol absorption properties in the Arabian Gulf region were observed during the United Arab Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE(2)). Measurements were taken at a coastal region of the Arabian Gulf located 60 km northeast of Abu Dhabi, the capital of the United Arab Emirates, allowing characterization of pollution and dust absorption properties in a highly heterogeneous environment. A large observed change of the diurnal signal during the period under study ( 27 August through 30 September 2004) was due to ( 1) strong sea and land breeze and ( 2) changes in prevailing synoptic-scale flow. During the night, stagnating air resulted in gradual accumulation of pollution with maximum absorption in the early morning hours. The rising sun increased both the depth of the boundary layer and the temperature of the interior desert, resulting in strong and sudden sea breeze onset which ventilated the polluted air accumulated during the night. Our observations show that the onshore winds brought cleaner air resulting in decreasing values of the absorption coefficient and increasing values of the single-scattering albedo (SSA). The mean value of the absorption coefficient at 550 nm measured during the sea breeze was 10.2 +/- 0.9 Mm(-1), while during the land breeze it was 13.8 +/- 1.2 Mm(-1). Synoptic- scale transport also strongly influenced particle fine/ coarse partition with "northern'' flow bringing pollution particles and "southern'' flow bringing more dust.