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Baranowski, DB, Flatau MK, Flatau PJ, Matthews AJ.  2016.  Phase locking between atmospheric convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin waves and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Maritime Continent. Geophysical Research Letters. 43:8269-8276.   10.1002/2016gl069602   AbstractWebsite

Convectively coupled Kelvin waves (CCKWs) are a major component of the tropical atmospheric circulation, propagating eastward around the equatorial belt. Here we show that there are scale interactions between CCKWs and the diurnal cycle over the Maritime Continent. In particular, CCKW packets that pass a base point in the eastern Indian Ocean at 90 degrees E between 0600 and 0900UTC subsequently arrive over Sumatra in phase with the diurnal cycle of convection. As the distance between Sumatra and Borneo is equal to the distance traveled by a CCKW in 1day, these waves are then also in phase with the diurnal cycle over Borneo. Consequently, this subset of CCKWs has a precipitation signal up to a factor of 3 larger than CCKWs that arrive at other times of the day and a 40% greater chance of successfully traversing the Maritime Continent.

Lelieveld, J, Berresheim H, Borrmann S, Crutzen PJ, Dentener FJ, Fischer H, Feichter J, Flatau PJ, Heland J, Holzinger R, Korrmann R, Lawrence MG, Levin Z, Markowicz KM, Mihalopoulos N, Minikin A, Ramanathan V, de Reus M, Roelofs GJ, Scheeren HA, Sciare J, Schlager H, Schultz M, Siegmund P, Steil B, Stephanou EG, Stier P, Traub M, Warneke C, Williams J, Ziereis H.  2002.  Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean. Science. 298:794-799.   10.1126/science.1075457   AbstractWebsite

The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation. In the middle troposphere, Asian and to a lesser extent North American pollution is transported from the west. Additional Asian pollution from the east, transported from the monsoon in the upper troposphere, crosses the Mediterranean tropopause, which pollutes the lower stratosphere at middle latitudes.