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Collins, WD, Bucholtz A, Flatau P, Lubin D, Valero FPJ, Weaver CP, Pilewski P.  2000.  Determination of surface heating by convective cloud systems in the central equatorial Pacific from surface and satellite measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 105:14807-14821.   10.1029/2000jd900109   AbstractWebsite

The heating of the ocean surface by longwave radiation from convective clouds has been estimated using measurements from the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). The ratio of the surface longwave cloud forcing to the cloud radiative forcing on the total atmospheric column is parameterized by the f factor. The f factor is a measure of the partitioning of the cloud radiative effect between the surface and the troposphere. Estimates of the f factor have been obtained by combining simultaneous observations from ship, aircraft, and satellite instruments. The cloud forcing near the ocean surface is determined from radiometers on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration P-3 aircraft and the R/V John Vickers. The longwave cloud forcing at the top of the atmosphere has been estimated from data obtained from the Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite GMS 4. A new method for estimating longwave fluxes from satellite narrowband radiances is described. The method is based upon calibrating the satellite radiances against narrowband and broadband infrared measurements from the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft. The average value of f derived from the surface and satellite observations of convective clouds is 0.15 +/- 0.02. The area-mean top-of-atmosphere longwave forcing by convective clouds in the region 10 degrees S-10 degrees N, 160 degrees E-160 degrees W is 40 W/m(2) during CEPEX. Those results indicate that the surface longwave forcing by convective clouds was approximately 5 W/m(2) in the central equatorial Pacific and that this forcing is the smallest radiative component of the surface energy budget.

Lelieveld, J, Berresheim H, Borrmann S, Crutzen PJ, Dentener FJ, Fischer H, Feichter J, Flatau PJ, Heland J, Holzinger R, Korrmann R, Lawrence MG, Levin Z, Markowicz KM, Mihalopoulos N, Minikin A, Ramanathan V, de Reus M, Roelofs GJ, Scheeren HA, Sciare J, Schlager H, Schultz M, Siegmund P, Steil B, Stephanou EG, Stier P, Traub M, Warneke C, Williams J, Ziereis H.  2002.  Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean. Science. 298:794-799.   10.1126/science.1075457   AbstractWebsite

The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north. Aerosol particles also reduce solar radiation penetration to the surface, which can suppress precipitation. In the middle troposphere, Asian and to a lesser extent North American pollution is transported from the west. Additional Asian pollution from the east, transported from the monsoon in the upper troposphere, crosses the Mediterranean tropopause, which pollutes the lower stratosphere at middle latitudes.

Markowicz, KM, Flatau PJ, Quinn PK, Carrico CM, Flatau MK, Vogelmann AM, Bates D, Liu M, Rood MJ.  2003.  Influence of relative humidity on aerosol radiative forcing: An ACE-Asia experiment perspective. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 108   10.1029/2002jd003066   AbstractWebsite

We present direct radiometric observations of aerosol radiative forcing during the ACE-Asia experiment (March and April of 2001). The observational analysis is based on radiometer data obtained from the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown, and shipboard measurements of the aerosol chemical and scattering properties are used to construct a model of the aerosol optical properties for use in radiative transfer calculations. The model is validated against the radiometric observations and is used to diagnose the aerosol and environmental factors that contribute to the observed forcings. The mean value of aerosol optical thickness observed during the ACE-Asia cruise over the Sea of Japan was 0.43 (+/-0.25) at 500 nm, while the single-scattering albedo was 0.95 (+/-0.03) at ambient relative humidity. We find a large correlation (r(2) = 0.69) between single-scattering albedo and relative humidity. Aerosols caused a mean decrease in the diurnally averaged solar radiation of 26.1 W m(-2) at the surface, while increasing the atmospheric solar absorption and top of atmosphere reflected solar radiation by 13.4 W m(-2) and 12.7 W m(-2), respectively. The mean surface aerosol forcing efficiency (forcing per unit optical depth) over the Sea of Japan was -60 W m(-2) and is influenced by high values of relative humidity. We show that decreasing the relative humidity to 55% enhances the aerosol forcing efficiency by as much as 6-10 W m(-2). This dependency on relative humidity has implications for comparisons of aerosol forcing efficiencies between different geographical locations.

Schmidt, JM, Flatau PJ, Harasti PR, Yates RD, Littleton R, Pritchard MS, Fischer JM, Fischer EJ, Kohri WJ, Vetter JR, Richman S, Baranowski DB, Anderson MJ, Fletcher E, Lando DW.  2012.  Radar observations of individual rain drops in the free atmosphere. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109:9293-9298.   10.1073/pnas.1117776109   AbstractWebsite

Atmospheric remote sensing has played a pivotal role in the increasingly sophisticated representation of clouds in the numerical models used to assess global and regional climate change. This has been accomplished because the underlying bulk cloud properties can be derived from a statistical analysis of the returned microwave signals scattered by a diverse ensemble comprised of numerous cloud hydrometeors. A new Doppler radar, previously used to track small debris particles shed from the NASA space shuttle during launch, is shown to also have the capacity to detect individual cloud hydrometeors in the free atmosphere. Similar to the traces left behind on film by subatomic particles, larger cloud particles were observed to leave a well-defined radar signature (or streak), which could be analyzed to infer the underlying particle properties. We examine the unique radar and environmental conditions leading to the formation of the radar streaks and develop a theoretical framework which reveals the regulating role of the background radar reflectivity on their observed characteristics. This main expectation from theory is examined through an analysis of the drop properties inferred from radar and in situ aircraft measurements obtained in two contrasting regions of an observed multicellular storm system. The observations are placed in context of the parent storm circulation through the use of the radar's unique high-resolution waveforms, which allow the bulk and individual hydrometeor properties to be inferred at the same time.

Collins, WD, Valero FPJ, Flatau PJ, Lubin D, Grassl H, Pilewskie P.  1996.  Radiative effects of convection in the tropical Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres. 101:14999-15012.   10.1029/95jd02534   AbstractWebsite

The radiative effects of tropical clouds at the tropopause and the ocean surface have been estimated by using in situ measurements from the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX). The effect of clouds is distinguished from the radiative effects of the surrounding atmosphere by calculating the shortwave and longwave cloud forcing. These terms give the reduction in insolation and the increase in absorption of terrestrial thermal emission associated with clouds. At the tropopause the shortwave and longwave cloud forcing are nearly equal and opposite, even on daily timescales. Therefore the net effect of an ensemble of convective clouds is small compared to other radiative terms in the surface-tropospheric heat budget. This confirms the statistical cancellation of cloud forcing observed in Earth radiation budget measurements from satellites. At the surface the net effect of clouds is to reduce the radiant energy absorbed by the ocean. Under deep convective clouds the diurnally averaged reduction exceeds 150 W m(-2). The divergence of flux in the cloudy atmosphere can be estimated from the difference in cloud forcing at the surface and tropopause. The CEPEX observations show that the atmospheric cloud forcing is nearly equal and opposite to the surface forcing. Based upon the frequency of convection, the atmospheric forcing approaches 100 W m(-2) when the surface temperature is 303 K. The cloud forcing is closely related to the frequency of convective cloud systems. This relation is used in conjunction with cloud population statistics derived from satellite to calculate the change in surface cloud forcing with sea surface temperature. The net radiative cooling of the surface by clouds increases at a rate of 20 W m(-2)K(-1)during the CEPEX observing period.